1265 in history

1265 events chronologically

Jan 20 In Westminster, the first English parliament conducts its first meeting held by Simon de Montfort in the Palace of Westminster, now also known colloquially as the "Houses of Parliament"
Aug 4 Second Barons' War: Battle of Evesham – the army of Prince Edward (the future king Edward I of England) defeats the forces of rebellious barons led by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, killing de Montfort and many of his allies

Born in 1265

Feb 24 Roger IV Count of Foix the seventh count of Foix from 1241 to his death. His reign began with the south again at war with the north in France and, though he was reluctant to join his father's old ally, Raymond VII of Toulouse, in revolt and he did not aid the king of England, Henry III, in his Saintonge War
Mar 13 Eberhard I Count of Württemberg Count of Württemberg from 1279 until his death. He was nicknamed 'der Erlauchte' or the Illustrious Highness
May 10 Emperor Fushimi the 92nd emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1287 through 1298
Oct 15 Temür Khan Emperor Chengzong of Yuan considered as the sixth Great Khan of the Mongols in Mongolia. He was an able ruler of the Yuan, and his reign established the patterns of power for the next few decades. His name means "blessed iron Khan" in the Mongolian language
Nov 4 Alfonso III of Aragon the King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona from 1285. He conquered the Kingdom of Majorca between his succession and 1287
Dec 3 Odofredus an Italian jurist. He was born in Ostia and moved to Bologna in which studied law under Jacobus Balduinus and Franciscus Accursius. After having practised as an advocate both in Italy and France, he became a law professor at Bologna in 1228. The commentaries on Roman law attributed to him are valuable as showing the growth of the study of law in Italy, and for their biographical details of the jurists of the 12th and 13th centuries. Odofredus died at Bologna in 1265

Died in 1265

Feb 8 Hulagu Khan a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. Son of Tolui and the Kerait princess Sorghaghtani Beki, he was a grandson of Genghis Khan and brother of Ariq Böke, Möngke Khan, and Kublai Khan
Feb 25 Ulrich I Count of Württemberg count of Württemberg from about 1241 until his death.
May 16 Simon Stock an early prior general of the Carmelite religious order. Little is known about his life with any historical certainty. The Blessed Virgin Mary is traditionally said to have appeared to him and given him the Carmelite habit, the Brown Scapular, with a promise that those who die wearing it will be saved. Thus, popular devotion to Saint Simon Stock is usually associated with devotion to Our Lady of Mount Carmel
Jun 26 Anne of Bohemia Duchess of Silesia the Duchess consort of Silesia ; she was the daughter of Ottokar I, King of Bohemia, and his second wife, Constance of Hungary. Her maternal grandparents were Béla III of Hungary and his first wife, Agnes of Antioch
Aug 4 Simon de Montfort 6th Earl of Leicester a French nobleman who inherited the title and estates of the earldom of Leicester in England. He led the rebellion against King Henry III of England during the Second Barons' War of 1263–4, and subsequently became de facto ruler of England. During his rule, de Montfort called two famous parliaments. The first stripped the king of unlimited authority, the second included ordinary citizens from the towns. For this reason, Montfort is regarded today as one of the progenitors of modern parliamentary democracy. After a rule of just over a year, Montfort was killed by forces loyal to the king in the Battle of Evesham
Aug 4 Hugh le Despencer 1st Baron le Despencer an important ally of Simon de Montfort during the reign of Henry III. He served briefly as Justiciar of England in 1260 and as Constable of the Tower of London
Nov 24 Magnus Olafsson a mid 13th century Manx-Hebridean king, the son of Óláfr Guðrøðarson, King of the Isles. Magnús and Óláfr descended from a long line of Norse-Gaelic kings who ruled the Isle of Man and parts of the Hebrides. Some leading members of the Crovan dynasty, such as Óláfr, styled themselves "King of the Isles"; other members, such as Magnús and his brothers, styled themselves "King of Mann and the Isles". Although kings in their own right, leading members of the Crovan dynasty paid tribute to the Kings of Norway and generally recognised a nominal Norse overlordship of Mann and the Hebrides