1291 in history

1291 events chronologically

May 10 Scottish nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England
Aug 1 The Old Swiss Confederacy is formed with the signature of the Federal Charter

Born in 1291

Feb 8 Afonso IV of Portugal King of Portugal and the Algarves from 1325 until his death. He was the only legitimate son of King Denis of Portugal by his wife Elizabeth of Aragon
Mar 9 Cangrande I della Scala an Italian nobleman, the most celebrated of the della Scala family which ruled Verona from 1277 until 1387. Now perhaps best known as the leading patron of the poet Dante Alighieri, Cangrande was in his own day chiefly acclaimed as a successful warrior and autocrat. Between becoming sole ruler of Verona in 1311 and his death in 1329 he took control of several neighbouring cities, notably Vicenza, Padua and Treviso, and came to be regarded as the leader of the Ghibelline faction in northern Italy
May 10 Gilbert de Clare 8th Earl of Gloucester an English nobleman and a military commander in the Scottish Wars. In contrast to most English earls at the time, his main focus lay in the pursuit of war rather than in domestic political strife. He was the son of Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester, and Joan of Acre, daughter of Edward The older Gilbert died when his son was only four years old, and the younger Gilbert was invested with his earldoms at the young age of sixteen. Almost immediately, he became involved in the defence of the northern border, but later he was drawn into the struggles between Edward II and some of his barons. He was one of the Lords Ordainers who ordered the expulsion of the king's favourite Piers Gaveston in 1311. When Gaveston was killed on his return in 1312, Gloucester helped negotiate a settlement between the perpetrators and the king
Oct 31 Philippe de Vitry a French composer, music theorist and poet. He was an accomplished, innovative, and influential composer, and may also have been the author of the Ars Nova treatise. He was widely acknowledged as the greatest musician of his day, with Petrarch writing a glowing tribute, calling him: "...the keenest and most ardent seeker of truth, so great a philosopher of our age."
Dec 15 Aymon Count of Savoy Count of Savoy from 1329 to 1343.

Died in 1291

Jan 29 Joan Countess of Blois Countess of Blois from 1280 to 1291, and Lady of Avesnes.
Mar 5 Sa'ad al-Dawla a Jewish physician and statesman in thirteenth-century Persia. He was grand vizier from 1289 to 1291 under the Mongolian Ilkhan in Persia, Arghun Khan. According to Abu al-Faraj, Sa'ad was father-in-law of the prefect of Baghdad. Sa'ad held a position in the treasury department, where he so distinguished himself that the Mongolian governor was jealous and recommended him to court as a physician. Here Sa'ad made a friend of Ordu Kia, a powerful general, and through his influence was sent to collect the arrears of taxes in Baghdad. He was so successful in raising money that Arghun appointed him assistant in the department of finances at Baghdad, Ordu Kia being appointed military governor, or emir, of that province. The historian Wassaf says that Sa'ad cured Arghun of an illness, and, having thus gained his confidence, informed the Ilkhan of the corruption among the officials at Baghdad. At the same time he impressed Arghun with his own ability by his knowledge of the Mongolian and Turkish languages, and by his intimate acquaintance with the conditions existing in the province. He was soon made general controller of the finances of Baghdad, and then of the whole empire, becoming grand vizier. "Thus," remarks Abu al-Faraj, "were the Muslims reduced to having a Jew in the place of honor," a situation which they greatly resented. Arghun, as a Lamaist Buddhist, had no such compunctions
Mar 7 Arghun the fourth ruler of the Mongol empire's Ilkhanate, from 1284 to 1291. He was the son of Abaqa Khan, and like his father, was a devout Buddhist. He was known for sending several embassies to Europe in an unsuccessful attempt to form a Franco-Mongol alliance against the Muslims in the Holy Land. It was also Arghun who requested a new bride from his great-uncle Kublai Khan. The mission to escort the young Kökötchin across Asia to Arghun was reportedly taken by Marco Polo. Arghun died before Kökötchin arrived, so she instead married Arghun's son, Ghazan
Jun 18 Alfonso III of Aragon the King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona from 1285. He conquered the Kingdom of Majorca between his succession and 1287
Jul 15 Rudolf I of Germany King of the Romans from 1273 until his death. Rudolf was the first of the count-kings, so-called by the historian Bernd Schneidmüller
Aug 16 Frederick Tuta a member of the House of Wettin. He was Margrave of Landsburg from 1285 until his death. From 1288 until his death, he was also Margrave of Lusatia and regent of Meissen