Born in 1515

Feb 4 Mikołaj "the Black" Radziwiłł a Lithuanian noble who held several administrative positions within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: Voivode of Vilnius, Grand Lithuanian Chancellor, and Grand Hetman of Lithuania.
Feb 14 Frederick III Elector Palatine a ruler from the house of Wittelsbach, branch Palatinate-Simmern-Sponheim. He was a son of John II of Simmern and inherited the Palatinate from the childless Elector Otto-Henry, Elector Palatine in 1559. He was a devout convert to Calvinism, and made Calvinism the official religion of his domain. Under his supervision the Heidelberg Catechism was constructed. His support of Calvinism gave the German Reformed movement a foothold within the Holy Roman Empire
Feb 18 Valerius Cordus a German physician and botanist who authored one of the greatest pharmacopoeias and one of the most celebrated herbals in history. He is also widely credited with developing a method for synthesizing ether
Mar 12 Caspar Othmayr a German Protestant priest, theologian and composer.
Mar 28 Teresa of Ávila a prominent Spanish mystic, Roman Catholic saint, Carmelite nun, an author of the Counter Reformation and theologian of contemplative life through mental prayer. She was a reformer of the Carmelite Order and is considered to be a founder of the Discalced Carmelites along with John of the Cross
May 2 Sibylle of Saxony a Saxon princess of the Albertine line of House of Wettin and by marriage Duchess of Saxe-Lauenburg.
May 12 Christoph Duke of Württemberg ruled as Duke of Württemberg from 1550 until his death in 1568.
Jul 10 Francisco de Toledo an aristocrat and military of the Kingdom of Spain, which was the fifth Viceroy of Peru.
Jul 21 Philip Neri an Italian priest noted for founding a society of secular clergy called the "Congregation of the Oratory".
Sep 8 Alfonso Salmeron a Spanish biblical scholar, Catholic priest, and one of the first Jesuits.
Sep 22 Anne of Cleves Queen of England from 6 January 1540 to 9 July 1540 as the fourth wife of King Henry VIII. The marriage was declared never consummated, and she was not crowned queen consort. Following the annulment of their marriage, Anne was given a generous settlement by the King, and thereafter referred to as the King's Beloved Sister. She lived to see the coronation of Queen Mary I, outliving the rest of Henry's wives
Oct 4 Lucas Cranach the Younger a German Renaissance artist, known for his woodcuts and paintings.
Oct 8 Margaret Douglas the daughter of Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, and Margaret Tudor, Queen Dowager of Scotland. In her youth she was high in the favour of her uncle, King Henry VIII, but twice incurred the King's anger, first for her unauthorised engagement to Lord Thomas Howard, who died in the Tower of London in 1537 because of his misalliance with her, and again in 1540 for an affair with Thomas Howard's nephew Sir Charles Howard, the brother of Queen consort Catherine Howard. On 6 July 1544, she married Matthew Stuart, 4th Earl of Lennox, one of Scotland's leading noblemen. Her son Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, married Mary, Queen of Scots and was the father of James VI of Scotland
Nov 22 Mary of Guise queen of Scotland as the second spouse of King James She was the mother of Mary, Queen of Scots, and served as regent of Scotland in her daughter's name from 1554 to 1560. A native of Lorraine, she was a member of the powerful House of Guise, which played a prominent role in 16th-century French politics. Her main goal was a close alliance between the powerful French Catholic nation and small Scotland, which she wanted to be Catholic and independent of England. She failed and at her death the Protestants took control of Scotland. In evaluating her life, historian Rosalind Marshall says: