Born in 1530

Feb 18 Uesugi Kenshin a daimyo who ruled Echigo province in the Sengoku period of Japan.
Mar 11 Johann Wilhelm Duke of Saxe-Weimar a duke of Saxe-Weimar. He was also the last Duke of Saxony and Landgrave of Thuringia
May 5 Gabriel comte de Montgomery a captain in Henry II's Scots Guards. He is remembered for mortally injuring Henry in a jousting accident and subsequently converting to Protestantism, the faith that the Scottish Guard sought to suppress
May 7 Louis Prince of Condé (1530–1569) a prominent Huguenot leader and general, the founder of the House of Condé, a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon.
Jun 17 François de Montmorency the eldest son of the first Duc de Montmorency, Anne.
Jul 3 Claude Fauchet (historian) a French historian and antiquary.
Aug 14 Giambattista Benedetti an Italian mathematician from Venice who was also interested in physics, mechanics, the construction of sundials, and the science of music.
Aug 25 Ivan the Terrible the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and Tsar of All the Russias from 1547 until his death. His long reign saw the conquest of the Khanates of Kazan, Astrakhan, and Siberia, transforming Russia into a multiethnic and multiconfessional state spanning almost one billion acres, approximately 4,046,856 km2. Ivan managed countless changes in the progression from a medieval state to an empire and emerging regional power, and became the first ruler to be crowned as Tsar of All the Russians
Sep 30 Girolamo Mercuriale an Italian philologist and physician, most famous for his work De Arte Gymnastica.
Nov 1 Étienne de La Boétie a French judge, writer, and "a founder of modern political philosophy in France." He "has been best remembered as the great and close friend of the eminent essayist Michel de Montaigne, in one of history's most notable friendships.".
Nov 6 Josias Simmler a Swiss theologian and classicist, author of the first book relating solely to the Alps.
Dec 5 Nikolaus Selnecker a German musician and theologian. He is now known mainly as a hymn writer. He is also known as one of the principal authors of the Formula of Concord along with Jakob Andreä and Martin Chemnitz