Born in 1533

Feb 9 Shimazu Yoshihisa a daimyo of Satsuma Province and the eldest son of Shimazu Takahisa. His mother was a daughter of Iriki'in Shigesato , Sesshō. Shimazu Yoshihiro and Shimazu Toshihisa are his brothers
Feb 28 Michel de Montaigne one of the most influential writers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre. He became famous for his effortless ability to merge serious intellectual exercises with casual anecdotes and autobiography—and his massive volume Essais contains, to this day, some of the most widely influential essays ever written. Montaigne had a direct influence on writers all over the world, including René Descartes, Blaise Pascal, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Albert Hirschman, William Hazlitt, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Friedrich Nietzsche, Stefan Zweig, Eric Hoffer, Isaac Asimov, and possibly on the later works of William Shakespeare
Mar 10 Francesco III Gonzaga Duke of Mantua Duke of Mantua and Marquess of Montferrat from 1540 until his death. He was the eldest son of Federico II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua and his wife Margaret Paleologina. On 22 October 1549, he married Catherine, a daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I
Apr 8 Claudio Merulo an Italian composer, publisher and organist of the late Renaissance period, most famous for his innovative keyboard music and his ensemble music composed in the Venetian polychoral style. He was born in Correggio and died in Parma. He was born Claudio Merlotti and he Latinised his surname when he became famous in Venetian cultural clubs
Apr 24 William the Silent the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1648. He was born in the House of Nassau as Count of Nassau-Dillenburg. He became Prince of Orange in 1544 and is thereby the founder of the branch House of Orange-Nassau and the ancestor of the monarchy of the Netherlands
Jul 10 Antonio Possevino a Jesuit protagonist of Counter Reformation as a papal diplomat and a Jesuit controversialist, encyclopedist and bibliographer. He acted as papal legate and the first Jesuit to visit Moscow, vicar general of Sweden, Denmark and northern islands, Muscovy, Livonia, Rus, Hungary, Pomerania, Saxony between 1578 and 1586
Aug 2 Theodor Zwinger a Swiss physician and humanist scholar. He made significant contributions to the emerging genres of reference and travel literature. He was the first distinguished representative of a prominent early modern Basel academic family
Aug 7 Alonso de Ercilla a Spanish nobleman, soldier and epic poet, born in Ocaña. While in Chile he fought against the Araucanians , and there he began the epic poem La Araucana, considered one of the greatest Spanish historical poems. This heroic work in 37 cantos is divided into three parts, published in 1569, 1578, and 1589. It tells of the courageous insurrection of the Araucanians and also relates the history of Chile and of contemporary Spain
Aug 7 Valentin Weigel a German theologian, philosopher and mystical writer, from Saxony, and an important precursor of later theosophy. In English he is often called Valentine Weigel
Sep 5 Jacopo Zabarella an Italian Aristotelian philosopher and logician.
Sep 7 Elizabeth I of England Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, the childless Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII by second wife, Anne Boleyn, who was executed two and a half years after Elizabeth's birth. Anne's marriage to Henry VIII was annulled, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate. Her half-brother, Edward VI, ruled until his death in 1553, bequeathing the crown to Lady Jane Grey and ignoring the claims of his two half-sisters, Elizabeth and the Roman Catholic Mary, in spite of statute law to the contrary. However, Edward's will was set aside and Mary became queen, deposing Lady Jane Grey. During Mary's reign, Elizabeth was imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels
Sep 15 Catherine of Austria Queen of Poland Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania, being the last consort of King Sigismund II Augustus.
Sep 27 Stephen Báthory Voivode of Transylvania , Prince of Transylvania , from 1576 Queen Anna Jagiellon's husband and jure uxoris King of Poland.
Oct 12 Asakura Yoshikage a Japanese daimyo of the Sengoku period who ruled a part of Echizen Province in present-day Fukui Prefecture. Yoshikage's conflicts with Oda Nobunaga resulted in his death and the destruction of the Asakura clan and its castle, Ichijōdani Castle
Oct 14 Anna of Mecklenburg a Duchess consort of Courland. She married the Duke of Courland, Gotthard Kettler, on 11 March 1566 in Königsberg. She was the daughter of Albrecht VII, Duke of Mecklenburg and Anna of Brandenburg. Anna is the first woman in Livonia, whose life story is entirely historically confirmed
Nov 22 Alfonso II d'Este Duke of Ferrara Duke of Ferrara from 1559 to 1597. He was a member of the House of Este
Dec 13 Eric XIV of Sweden King of Sweden from 1560 until he was deposed in 1568. Eric XIV was the son of Gustav I and Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg. He was also ruler of Estonia, after its conquest by Sweden in 1561