Born in 1538

Jan 10 Louis of Nassau the third son of William, Count of Nassau and Juliana of Stolberg, and the younger brother of Prince William of Orange Nassau.
Jan 15 Maeda Toshiie one of the leading generals of Oda Nobunaga following the Sengoku period of the 16th century extending to the Azuchi-Momoyama period. His father was Maeda Toshimasa. He was the fourth of seven brothers. His childhood name was "Inuchiyo". His preferred weapon was a yari and he was known as "Yari no Mataza" , Matazaemon being his common name. The highest rank from the court that he received is the Great Counselor Dainagon
Jan 16 John Frederick III Duke of Saxony German nobleman. He was a titular Duke of Saxony from the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin. He received Saxe-Gotha as an apanage, but left its administration to his eldest brother
Mar 25 Christopher Clavius a German Jesuit mathematician and astronomer who modified the proposal of the modern Gregorian calendar after the death of its primary author, Luigi Lilio. Clavius would later write defences and an explanation of the reformed calendar, including an emphatic acknowledgement of Lilio's work. In his last years he was probably the most respected astronomer in Europe and his textbooks were used for astronomical education for over fifty years in and even out of Europe
Apr 24 Guglielmo Gonzaga Duke of Mantua Duke of Mantua and Montferrat from 1550 to 1587. He was the second son of Federico II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua and Margaret Palaeologina of Montferrat. In 1574, Montferrat was elevated to a Duchy and he became its first duke. He was succeeded by his son Vincenzo
Apr 26 Gian Paolo Lomazzo an Italian painter, best remembered for his writings on art theory, belonging to the second generation that produced Mannerism in Italian art and architecture.
Aug 30 Caesar Baronius an Italian Cardinal and ecclesiastical historian. His best-known works are his Annales Ecclesiastici , which appear in twelve folio volumes
Sep 29 Joan Terès i Borrull presbyter of Vic, auxiliary bishop of Morocco , bishop of Elne and of Tortosa , and archbishop of Tarragona. He was viceroy of Catalonia and councillor of King Philip III of Spain
Oct 2 Charles Borromeo the cardinal archbishop of Milan from 1564 to 1584. Among the great reformers of the troubled sixteenth century, Borromeo, with Ignatius of Loyola, Philip Neri, and others, led the movement to combat the inroads of the Protestant Reformation. He was a leading figure during the Counter-Reformation and was responsible for significant reforms in the Catholic Church, including the founding of seminaries for the education of priests. He is honoured as a saint in the Catholic Church and his feast day is 4 November
Nov 16 Turibius of Mogrovejo a Spanish missionary Archbishop of Lima.
Dec 8 Miklós Istvánffy a Hungarian politician, Humanist historian and poet, who served as Palatinal Governor of Hungary from 19 January 1582 to November 1608.
Dec 10 Giovanni Battista Guarini an Italian poet, dramatist, and diplomat.
Dec 19 Jan Zborowski a Polish Court Hetman of the Crown, royal secretaty of Zygmunt II August and Lord Kasztelan of Gniezno.