Born in 1540

Jan 24 Edmund Campion an English Roman Catholic Jesuit priest and martyr. While conducting an underground ministry in officially Anglican England, Campion was arrested by priest hunters. Convicted of high treason, he was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn. Campion was beatified by Pope Leo XIII in 1886 and canonised in 1970 by Pope Paul VI as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales. His feast is celebrated on 1 December
Jan 28 Ludolph van Ceulen a German-Dutch mathematician from Hildesheim. He emigrated to the Netherlands
Feb 12 Won Gyun a Korean general and admiral during the Joseon Dynasty. He is best known for his campaigns against Japanese during Hideyoshi's invasions of Korea. Won was a member of Wonju Won family, which was well known for its members' military accomplishments. He was born in 1540 near Pyeongtaek and demonstrated his skill as warrior at a young age. He was qualified as a military officer and was first assigned to the northern border to defend against the Jurchens, who frequently raided Korean villages. Won led many successful campaigns with Yi Il and Yi Sun-sin against the Jurchens. After considerable accomplishments on the northern frontier, he was promoted to admiral in 1592 and sent to the southern coast of Gyeongsang Province to command the province's Western Fleet, along with Yi Sun-sin, who became admiral before Won and took command of Jeolla Province's Eastern Fleet. At the time, Won and Yi were cavalry leaders who had no experience with naval warfare
Feb 25 Henry Howard 1st Earl of Northampton a significant English aristocrat and courtier. He was suspect as a crypto-Catholic throughout his life, and went through periods of royal disfavour, in which his reputation suffered greatly. He was distinguished for learning, artistic culture and his public charities. He built Northumberland House in London and superintended the construction of the fine house of Audley End. He founded and planned several hospitals. Francis Bacon included three of his sayings in his Apophthegms, and chose him as "the learnedest councillor in the kingdom to present to the king his Advancement of Learning." Although he died before it went to trial it was discovered that he had been involved in the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury
Apr 3 Maria de' Medici (1540–1557) the eldest daughter of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Eleonora di Toledo. She was a member of the famous Medici family
May 9 Maharana Pratap a Hindu Rajput ruler of Mewar, a region in north-western India in the present day state of Rajasthan. He belonged to the Sisodia clan of Rajputs. In popular Indian culture, Pratap is considered to exemplify qualities like bravery and chivalry to which Rajputs aspire, especially in context of his opposition to the Mughal emperor Akbar
Jun 3 Charles II Archduke of Austria an Archduke of Austria and ruler of Inner Austria from 1564. He was a member of the House of Habsburg
Jun 11 Barnabe Googe a poet and translator, one of the earliest English pastoral poets.
Jun 29 Ana de Mendoza Princess of Eboli a Spanish aristocrat, suo jure 2nd Princess of Mélito, 2nd Duchess of Francavilla and 3rd Countess of Aliano.
Jul 7 John Sigismund Zápolya King of Hungary from 1540 to 1551 and again from 1556 to 1570. He reigned over the "Eastern Hungarian Kingdom", as historians call the area which recognized as King his father and then him, instead of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, who ruled western Hungary
Aug 5 Joseph Justus Scaliger a French religious leader and scholar, known for expanding the notion of classical history from Greek and ancient Roman history to include Persian, Babylonian, Jewish and ancient Egyptian history. He spent the end of his life in the Netherlands
Aug 25 Lady Catherine Grey the younger sister of Lady Jane Grey. A granddaughter of Henry VIII's sister Mary, she was a potential successor to her cousin, Queen Elizabeth I of England, but incurred Elizabeth's wrath by her secret marriage to Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford. Following her arrest when the queen was informed of her clandestine marriage, she lived in captivity until her death, having borne two sons in the Tower of London
Sep 5 Magnus Duke of Holstein a Prince of Denmark and a member of the House of Oldenburg. As a vassal of Ivan IV of Russia, he was the titular King of Livonia from 1570 to 1578
Oct 1 Johann Jakob Grynaeus a Swiss Protestant divine.
Dec 28 Charles I Duke of Mecklenburg the reigning Duke of Mecklenburg in the Mecklenburg-Güstrow part of the country.