Born in 1542

Mar 19 Jan Zamoyski a Polish-Lithuanian nobleman, magnate, and the 1st ordynat of Zamość. Royal Secretary since 1566, Deputy Kanclerz of the Crown since 1576, Lord Grand-Chancellor of the Crown since 1578, and Grand Hetman of the Crown since 1581. General Starost of Kraków from 1580 to 1585, Starost of Bełz, Międzyrzecz, Krzeszów, Knyszyn and Derpsk. Important advisor to Kings Sigismund II Augustus and Stephen Báthory, he was one of the major opponents of Bathory's successor, Sigismund III Vasa, and one of the most skilled diplomats, politicians and statesmen of his time, standing as a major figure in the politics of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth throughout his life
May 5 Thomas Cecil 1st Earl of Exeter an English politician and soldier.
May 20 Gasparo da Salò the name given to Gasparo di Bertolotti, one of the earliest violin makers and an expert double bass player. Around 80 of his instruments are still in existence: violins , alto and tenor violas, viols, violones and double basses, violas with only a pair of corners, ceteras
Jun 15 Richard Grenville an English sailor who as captain of the Revenge, died at the Battle of Flores , fighting heroically against overwhelming odds, and refusing to surrender his ship to the far more numerous Spanish. He was also a soldier, an Armed Merchant Fleet Owner, Privateer, Colonizer, and explorer. He took part in the early English attempts to settle the New World, and also participated in the fight against the Spanish Armada. His non military offices included Member of Parliament for Cornwall, High Sheriff of County Cork from 1569–70 and Sheriff of Cornwall in 1576–77. He was the grandfather of Sir Bevil Grenville of English Civil War fame, whose son was John Granville, 1st Earl of Bath
Aug 31 Isabella de' Medici the daughter of Cosimo I de' Medici, first Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Eleonora di Toledo. She was raised and educated in a humanist manner with her siblings, including Francesco de' Medici who succeeded their father as the Grand Duke of Tuscany. To secure a relationship with the powerful Roman Orsinis, Isabella's father arranged her marriage to Paolo Giordano I Orsini when she was 16. She remained in her father's household after her marriage, giving her an unusual degree of independence for a woman of her period. Following the death of her father, Isabella was probably murdered, with the complicity of her husband and brother, and in retribution for her relationship with Paolo Giordano's cousin Troilo Orsini
Oct 1 Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira a Spanish navigator. Born in Congosto, in León, he was the nephew of Lope García de Castro, viceroy of Peru. He is best known for the two voyages of discovery he led into the Pacific in 1567 and 1595 in search of Terra Australis
Oct 4 Robert Bellarmine an Italian Jesuit and a Cardinal of the Catholic Church. He was one of the most important figures in the Counter-Reformation. He was canonized in 1930 and named a Doctor of the Church. Bellarmine is also widely remembered for his role in the Galileo affair
Oct 14 Akbar Mughal Emperor from 1556 until his death. He was the third and one of the greatest rulers of the Mughal Dynasty in India. Akbar succeeded his father, Humayun, under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped the young emperor expand and consolidate Mughal domains in India. A strong personality and a successful general, Akbar gradually enlarged the Mughal Empire to include nearly all of the Indian Subcontinent north of the Godavari river. His power and influence, however, extended over the entire country because of Mughal military, political, cultural, and economic dominance. To unify the vast Mughal state, Akbar established a centralised system of administration throughout his empire and adopted a policy of conciliating conquered rulers through marriage and diplomacy. In order to preserve peace and order in a religiously and culturally diverse empire, he adopted policies that won him the support of his non-Muslim subjects. Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic state identity, Akbar strived to unite far-flung lands of his realm through loyalty, expressed through a Persianised culture, to himself as an emperor who had near-divine status
Oct 31 Henriette of Cleves a French noblewoman and heiress of the Cleves-Nevers family. She was also known as Henriette de La Marck. She became the "suo jure" 4th Duchess of Nevers and the "suo jure" Countess of Rethel, upon the childless death of her brother, James of Cleves, Duke of Nevers and Count of Rethel, in 1564. She was the wife of Louis I Gonzaga, Duke of Nevers, 1st Duke of Rethel, and Prince of Mantua. Following her marriage she became the Duchess of Rethel and Princess of Mantua
Nov 1 Tarquinia Molza an Italian singer, poet, conductor, composer, and natural philosopher. She was considered a great virtuosa. She was involved with the famous Concerto delle donne, although whether she sang with them or coached them is not clear. She also played the viola bastarda
Dec 2 Ludwig Senfl a Swiss composer of the Renaissance, active in Germany. He was the most famous pupil of Heinrich Isaac, was music director to the court of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, and was an influential figure in the development of the Franco-Flemish polyphonic style in Germany