Born in 1543

Jan 18 Alfonso Ferrabosco the elder an Italian composer. While mostly famous as the solitary Italian madrigalist working in England, and the one mainly responsible for the growth of the madrigal there, he also composed much sacred music. He also may have been a spy for Elizabeth I while he was in Italy
Jan 31 Tokugawa Ieyasu the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Ieyasu seized power in 1600, received appointment as shogun in 1603, abdicated from office in 1605, but remained in power until his death in 1616. His given name is sometimes spelled Iyeyasu, according to the historical pronunciation of Ieyasu was posthumously enshrined at Nikkō Tōshō-gū with the name Tōshō Daigongen
Feb 16 Kanō Eitoku a Japanese painter who lived during the Azuchi–Momoyama period of Japanese history and one of the most prominent patriarchs of the Kanō school of Japanese painting.
Feb 18 Charles III Duke of Lorraine Duke of Lorraine from 1545 until his death.
Feb 25 Sharaf Khan Bidlisi a medieval Kurdish emir and a politician from the Emirate of Bitlis.
Mar 7 John Casimir of the Palatinate-Simmern a German prince and a younger son of Frederick III, Elector Palatine. A firm Calvinist, he was a leader of mercenary troops in the religious wars of the time, including the Dutch Revolt. From 1583–1592 he acted as regent for his nephew, Elector Palatine Frederick IV
Apr 1 François de Bonne Duke of Lesdiguières soldier of the French Wars of Religion and Constable of France.
Jun 29 Christine of Hesse Duchess consort of Holstein-Gottorp as the spouse of Duke Adolf of Holstein-Gottorp. She exerted some political influence as a widow after 1586
Sep 14 Claudio Acquaviva Very Rev. Claudio Acquaviva, S.J. was an Italian Jesuit priest elected in 1581 the 5th Superior General of the Society of Jesus. He is often referred to as the second founder of the Jesuit Order. Some older texts, including those illustrated in this article, spell his name Aquaviva
Nov 8 Lettice Knollys an English noblewoman and mother to the courtiers Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex and Lady Penelope Rich, although via her marriage to Elizabeth I's favourite, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, she incurred the Queen's unrelenting displeasure.