Born in 1550

Apr 12 Edward de Vere 17th Earl of Oxford an English peer and courtier of the Elizabethan era. Oxford was heir to the second oldest earldom in the kingdom, a court favourite for a time, a sought-after patron of the arts, and noted by his contemporaries as a lyric poet and playwright, but his reckless and volatile temperament precluded him from attaining any courtly or governmental responsibility and contributed to the dissipation of his estate. Since the 1920s he has been the most popular alternative candidate proposed for the authorship of Shakespeare's works
May 8 John I Count Palatine of Zweibrücken Count Palatine and Duke of Zweibrücken during 1569-1604.
May 25 Camillus de Lellis an Italian priest who founded a religious Order dedicated to the care of the sick.
Jun 16 Marie Eleonore of Cleves a Duchess consort of Prussia as the wife of Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia. She was the eldest child of William, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg and Maria of Austria
Jun 27 Charles IX of France a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1560 until his death. He ascended the throne of France upon the death of his brother Francis II
Sep 10 Alonso Pérez de Guzmán 7th Duke of Medina Sidonia the commander-in-chief of the Spanish Armada.
Sep 30 Michael Maestlin a German astronomer and mathematician, known for being the mentor of Johannes Kepler.
Oct 4 Charles IX of Sweden King of Sweden from 1604 until his death. He was the youngest son of King Gustav I of Sweden and his second wife, Margaret Leijonhufvud, brother of Eric XIV and John III, and uncle of Sigismund I/III, king of both Sweden and Poland. By his father's will he got, by way of appanage, the Duchy of Södermanland, which included the provinces of Närke and Värmland; but he did not come into actual possession of them till after the fall of Eric and the succession to the throne of John in 1568
Oct 28 Stanislaus Kostka a Polish novice of the Society of Jesus. In the Catholic Church he is venerated as Saint Stanislaus Kostka
Nov 6 Karin Månsdotter Queen of Sweden, first a mistress and then, for a few months in 1568, the consort of Eric XIV of Sweden. The asteroid 832 Karin is named in her honour
Dec 6 Orazio Vecchi an Italian composer of the late Renaissance. He is most famous for his madrigal comedies, particularly L'Amfiparnaso
Dec 21 Man Singh I the Rajput Raja of Amber, a state later known as Jaipur in Rajputana. He was a trusted general of the Mughal emperor Akbar, who included him among the Navaratnas, or the 9 gems of the royal court
Dec 22 Cesare Cremonini (philosopher) an Italian professor of natural philosophy, working rationalism and Aristotelian materialism inside scholasticism. He signed his Latin texts Cæsar Cremoninus , or Cæsar Cremonius
Dec 28 Vicente Espinel a Spanish writer and musician of the Siglo de Oro.
Dec 29 García de Silva Figueroa a Spanish diplomat, and the first Western traveller to correctly identify the ruins of Takht-e Jamshid in Persia as the location of Persepolis, the ancient capital of the Achaemenid Empire and one of the great cities of antiquity.
Dec 31 Henry I Duke of Guise the eldest son of Francis, Duke of Guise, and Anna d'Este. His maternal grandparents were Ercole II d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, and Renée of France. Through his maternal grandfather, he was a descendant of Lucrezia Borgia and Pope Alexander VI