Born in 1552

Jan 14 Alberico Gentili an Italian jurist. He left Italy due to his Protestant faith, travelled in Central Europe, and emigrated to England. In 1580 he became regius professor of civil law at the University of Oxford. He was one of the first writers on public international law
Jan 22 Walter Raleigh an English aristocrat, writer, poet, soldier, politician, courtier, spy, and explorer and cousin to Sir Richard Grenville. He is also well known for popularising tobacco in England
Feb 1 Edward Coke considered to be the greatest jurist of the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras. Born into a middle-class family, Coke was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge before leaving to study at the Inner Temple, where he was called to the Bar on 20 April 1578. As a barrister he took part in several notable cases, including Slade's Case, before earning enough political favour to be elected to Parliament, where he served first as Solicitor General and then as Speaker of the House of Commons. Following a promotion to Attorney General he led the prosecution in several notable cases, including those against Robert Devereux, Sir Walter Raleigh and the Gunpowder Plot conspirators. As a reward for his services he was first knighted and then made Chief Justice of the Common Pleas
Feb 8 Agrippa d'Aubigné a French poet, soldier, propagandist and chronicler. His epic poem Les Tragiques is widely regarded as his masterpiece
Feb 19 Melchior Klesl an Austrian statesman and cardinal of the Roman Catholic church during the time of the Counter-Reformation. Klesl was appointed Bishop of Vienna in 1598 and elevated to cardinal in 1616
Feb 25 Magdalene of Lippe a German noblewoman. She was a Countess of Lippe by birth. By her marriage to George I, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt she was the first Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt
Feb 28 Jost Bürgi a Swiss clockmaker, a maker of astronomical instruments and a mathematician.
Jun 8 Gabriello Chiabrera an Italian poet, sometimes called the Italian Pindar.
Jul 18 Rudolf II Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor , King of Hungary and Croatia , King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria. He was a member of the House of Habsburg
Aug 14 Paolo Sarpi a Venetian historian, prelate, scientist, canon lawyer, and statesman active on behalf of the Venetian Republic during the period of its successful defiance of the papal interdict and its war with Austria over the Uskok pirates. His writings, frankly polemical and highly critical of the Catholic Church and its Scholastic tradition, "inspired both Hobbes and Gibbon in their own historical debunkings of priestcraft." Sarpi's major work, the History of the Council of Trent , was published in London in 1619; other works: a History of Ecclesiastical Benefices, History of the Interdict and his Supplement to the History of the Uskoks, appeared posthumously. Organized around single topics, they are early examples of the genre of the historical monograph
Aug 24 Lavinia Fontana an Italian painter. She is regarded as the first woman artist, working within the same sphere as her male counterparts, outside a court or convent
Sep 17 Pope Paul V Pope from 16 May 1605 to his death in 1621.
Sep 21 Barbara Longhi an Italian painter. She was much admired in her lifetime as a portraitist, although most of her portraits are now lost or unattributed. Her work, such as her many Madonna and Child paintings, earned her a fine reputation as an artist
Sep 22 Vasili IV of Russia Tsar of Russia between 1606 and 1610 after the murder of False Dmitriy His reign fell during the Time of Troubles. He was the only member of House of Shuysky to become Tsar and the last member of the Rurikid dynasty to rule
Oct 6 Matteo Ricci S.J. was an Italian Jesuit priest and one of the founding figures of the Jesuit China missions. His 1602 map of the world in Chinese characters introduced the findings of European exploration to East Asia. Within Roman Catholicism, he is considered a Servant of God
Oct 11 Tsarevich Dmitry Ivanovich of Russia (1552–1553) the first Tsarevich or Tsesarevich - the heir apparent - of the Tsardom of Russia, as the eldest son of Ivan the Terrible, or Ivan IV of Russia and his first Tsaritsa, Anastasia Romanovna. He was the third child and first son of the couple and died in infancy, leaving his younger brother, Ivan Ivanovich, heir
Dec 29 Henri Prince of Condé (1552–1588) a French Prince du Sang and Huguenot general like his more prominent father, Louis I, Prince of Condé.
Dec 31 Simon Forman an Elizabethan astrologer, occultist and herbalist active in London during the reigns of Queen Elizabeth I and James I of England. His reputation, however, was severely tarnished after his death when he was implicated in the plot to kill Sir Thomas Overbury. Writers from Ben Jonson to Nathaniel Hawthorne came to characterize him as either as a fool or an evil magician in league with the devil