Born in 1553

Feb 4 Mōri Terumoto eventually overcome, participated in the Kyūshū campaign on Hideyoshi's side and built Hiroshima Castle, thus essentially founding Hiroshima.
Mar 18 Wenceslaus Hajek a Bohemian chronicler, author of the Annales Bohemorum. The Annales was translated into German by Johann Sandel , and was long considered one of the best sources of Bohemian history. Modern criticism has found it to be very inaccurate as a description of the times described, although still useful for information about the literary traditions of the time
Mar 29 Vitsentzos Kornaros a Cretan poet, who wrote the romantic epic poem Erotokritos. He wrote in vernacular Greek, and was a leading figure of the Cretan Renaissance
Apr 30 Louise of Lorraine a member of the House of Lorraine who became Queen consort of France from 1575 until 1589. Born in Nomeny in the Duchy of Bar, she was the daughter of Nicholas, Duke of Mercœur, and Margaret of Egmont
May 7 Albert Frederick Duke of Prussia Duke of Prussia from 1568 until his death. He was a son of Albert of Prussia and Anna Marie of Brunswick-Lüneburg. He was the second and last Prussian duke of the Ansbach branch of the Hohenzollern family
May 14 Margaret of Valois Queen of France and of Navarre during the late sixteenth century. A royal princess of France by birth, she was the last of the House of Valois
Jun 6 Bernardino Baldi an Italian mathematician and writer.
Jun 15 Archduke Ernest of Austria an Austrian prince, the son of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria of Spain.
Sep 26 Nicolò Contarini the 97th Doge of Venice, reigning from his election on January 18, 1630 until his death 15 months later. Contarini was the Doge who presided over Venice during the Italian plague of 1629–1631, which killed one third of Venice's population
Oct 8 Jacques Auguste de Thou a French historian, book collector and president of the Parlement de Paris.
Oct 18 Luca Marenzio an Italian composer and singer of the late Renaissance. He was one of the most renowned composers of madrigals, and wrote some of the most famous examples of the form in its late stage of development, prior to its early Baroque transformation by Monteverdi. In all, Marenzio wrote around 500 madrigals, ranging from the lightest to the most serious styles, packed with word-painting, chromaticism, and other characteristics of the late madrigal style. Marenzio was influential as far away as England, where his earlier, lighter work appeared in 1588 in the Musica Transalpina, the collection that initiated the madrigal craze in that country. Marenzio worked in the service of several aristocratic Italian families, including the Gonzaga, Este, and Medici, and spent most of his career in Rome
Nov 23 Prospero Alpini an Italian physician and botanist from the Republic of Venice.
Dec 13 Henry IV of France King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first French monarch of the House of Bourbon
Dec 21 Sinan Pasha (Ottoman admiral) a Kapudan Pasha of the Ottoman Navy for nearly four years between 1550 and the end of 1553, during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. He was of Croatian descent, the predecessor of Piyale Pasha in this rank and the brother of Grand Vizier Damat Rüstem Pasha, who in turn was married to Sultana Mihrimah, a daughter of Suleiman the Magnificent