Died in 1553

Feb 4 Caspar Othmayr a German Protestant priest, theologian and composer.
Feb 8 John Ernest Duke of Saxe-Coburg a Duke of Saxe-Coburg.
Feb 19 Erasmus Reinhold a German astronomer and mathematician, considered to be the most influential astronomical pedagogue of his generation. He was born and died in Saalfeld, Saxony
Feb 21 Pedro Álvarez de Toledo Marquis of Villafranca the first effective Spanish viceroy of Naples, 1532–1552, responsible for considerable social, economic and urban change in the city and southern Italian kingdom, in general.
Feb 25 Hirate Masahide a Japanese samurai who served the Oda clan for two generations. His original name was Hirate Kiyohide
Apr 9 François Rabelais a major French Renaissance writer, doctor, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholar. He has historically been regarded as a writer of fantasy, satire, the grotesque, bawdy jokes and songs. His best known work is Gargantua and Pantagruel. Because of his literary power and historical importance, Western literary critics considered him one of the great writers of world literature and among the creators of modern European writing
May 22 Giovanni Bernardi an Italian gem engraver and medallist who was born in Castel Bolognese, Italy. He was the son of a goldsmith and by 1530 had moved to Rome, where he had a position in the Papal mint, which also allowed him time to work for other patrons. These included Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici , Pope Clement VII , Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, the future Pope Paul III, as well as his grandson, also called Cardinal Alessandro Farnese. He was "a skillful composer of elegant nudes in elaborate scenes"
Jun 3 Wolf Huber an Austrian painter, printmaker, and architect, a leading member of the Danube School.
Jun 26 Tsarevich Dmitry Ivanovich of Russia (1552–1553) the first Tsarevich or Tsesarevich - the heir apparent - of the Tsardom of Russia, as the eldest son of Ivan the Terrible, or Ivan IV of Russia and his first Tsaritsa, Anastasia Romanovna. He was the third child and first son of the couple and died in infancy, leaving his younger brother, Ivan Ivanovich, heir
Jul 6 Edward VI of England King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death. He was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine. The son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, Edward was the third monarch of the Tudor dynasty and England's first monarch raised as a Protestant. During Edward's reign, the realm was governed by a Regency Council because he never reached his majority. The Council was first led by his uncle Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, , and then by John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick, from 1551 Duke of Northumberland
Jul 9 Maurice Elector of Saxony Duke and later Elector of Saxony. His clever manipulation of alliances and disputes gained the Albertine branch of the Wettin dynasty extensive lands and the electoral dignity
Aug 17 Charles III Duke of Savoy Duke of Savoy from 1504 to 1553, although most of his lands were ruled by the French between 1536 and his death.
Aug 22 John Dudley 1st Duke of Northumberland an English general, admiral, and politician, who led the government of the young King Edward VI from 1550 until 1553, and unsuccessfully tried to install Lady Jane Grey on the English throne after the King's death. The son of Edmund Dudley, a minister of Henry VII executed by Henry VIII, John Dudley became the ward of Sir Edward Guildford at the age of seven. He grew up in Guildford's household together with his future wife, Guildford's daughter Jane, with whom he was to have 13 children. Dudley served as Vice-Admiral and Lord Admiral from 1537 until 1547, during which time he set novel standards of navy organisation and was an innovative commander at sea. He also developed a strong interest in overseas exploration. Dudley took part in the 1544 campaigns in Scotland and France and was one of Henry VIII's intimates in the last years of the reign. He was also a leader of the religious reform party at court
Oct 6 Şehzade Mustafa the prince of Manisa from 1533 to 1541 and the prince of Amasya from 1541 to 1553. He was Suleiman the Magnificent's first-born son by Mahidevran Sultan. Şehzade Mustafa was the heir apparent to the Ottoman throne and a very popular prince among the people of Anatolia. He had one sister, Raziye Sultan, from her mother's side
Oct 7 Cristóbal de Morales a Spanish composer of the Renaissance. He is generally considered to be the most influential Spanish composer before Victoria
Oct 16 Lucas Cranach the Elder a German Renaissance painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving. He was court painter to the Electors of Saxony for most of his career, and is known for his portraits, both of German princes and those of the leaders of the Protestant Reformation, whose cause he embraced with enthusiasm, becoming a close friend of Martin Luther. He also painted religious subjects, first in the Catholic tradition, and later trying to find new ways of conveying Lutheran religious concerns in art. He continued throughout his career to paint nude subjects drawn from mythology and religion. He had a large workshop and many works exist in different versions; his son Lucas Cranach the Younger, and others, continued to create versions of his father's works for decades after his death. Lucas Cranach the Elder has been considered the most successful German artist of his time
Oct 19 Bonifazio Veronese an Italian painter. He was born as Bonifazio de' Pitati in Verona. He reputedly trained under Palma il Vecchio. Went on to run a large workshop in Venice. His paintings include Christ Giving a Sermon, Dives and Lazarus, The Finding of Moses, and Woman Holding Two Tablets, his style being influenced by that of Giorgione and Titian. Many cassoni and furniture decorations are attributed to him
Oct 27 Michael Servetus a Spanish theologian, physician, cartographer, and Renaissance humanist. He was the first European to correctly describe the function of pulmonary circulation, as discussed in Christianismi Restitutio. He was a polymath versed in many sciences: mathematics, astronomy and meteorology, geography, human anatomy, medicine and pharmacology, as well as jurisprudence, translation, poetry and the scholarly study of the Bible in its original languages. He is renowned in the history of several of these fields, particularly medicine and theology. He participated in the Protestant Reformation, and later developed a nontrinitarian Christology. Condemned by Catholics and Protestants alike, he was arrested in Geneva and burnt at the stake as a heretic by order of the city's Protestant governing council
Oct 30 Jacob Sturm von Sturmeck a German statesman, one of the preeminent promoters of the Protestant Reformation in Germany.
Oct 31 Piotr Kmita Sobieński Grand Marshal of the Crown from 1529 onwards, voivode and starosta of Kraków, starosta of Spiš , starosta of Przemyśl, starosta of Koleński, Castellan of Sandomierz, one of the richest and most influential persons in contemporary Poland. He was the heir of 28 villages, including Wiśnicz, Sobienia and many royal estates, among others, Lipnica Murowana
Nov 15 Lucrezia de' Medici (1470–1553) an Italian noblewoman, the eldest daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici and Clarice Orsini and mother of Maria Salviati and Giovanni Salviati, who was a cardinal from 1517 until his death. Her portrait was considered as the baby Jesus in Our Lady of the Magnificat of Sandro Botticelli
Nov 27 Şehzade Cihangir the sixth and youngest child of Hürrem Sultan and the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. From birth, he had many problems of health and developed a deformity. He was very well educated and said to be one of the cleverest of his siblings and half-siblings. Reports suggest he later died of "grief" at the news of the execution of his half-brother, Mustafa, ordered by his father, Sultan Suleiman
Dec 14 Hanibal Lucić a Croatian Renaissance poet and playwright.
Dec 25 Pedro de Valdivia a Spanish conquistador and the first royal governor of Chile. After serving with the Spanish army in Italy and Flanders, he was sent to South America in 1534, where he served as lieutenant under Francisco Pizarro in Peru, acting as his second in command. In 1540 he led an expedition of 150 Spaniards into Chile, where he defeated a large force of Indians and founded Santiago in 1541. He extended Spanish rule south to the Bío-Bío River in 1546, fought again in Peru , and returned to Chile as governor in 1549. He began to conquer Chile south of the Bío-Bío and founded Concepción in 1550. He was captured and killed in a campaign against the Araucanian Indians. The city of Valdivia in Chile is named after him