Born in 1556

Jan 8 Uesugi Kagekatsu a Japanese samurai daimyo during the Sengoku period and Edo period.
Feb 21 Sethus Calvisius a German music theorist, composer, chronologer, astronomer, and teacher of the late Renaissance.
Mar 7 Guillaume du Vair a French author and lawyer.
Apr 27 François Béroalde de Verville a French Renaissance novelist, poet and intellectual. He was the son of Matthieu Brouard , called "Béroalde", a professor of Agrippa d'Aubigné and Pierre de l'Estoile and a Huguenot; his mother, Marie Bletz, was the niece of the humanist and Hebrew scholar François Vatable. At the time of the Bartholomew's Day Massacre, his family fled to Geneva , but Béroalde returned to Paris in 1581. During the civil wars, Béroalde abjured Calvinism and joined the factions around Henri III of France. In 1589 he moved to Tours , and became chanoine of the cathedral chapter of Saint Gatien, where he remained until his death
May 31 Jerzy Radziwiłł (1556–1600) a Polish–Lithuanian nobleman from the Radziwiłł family. He was a Catholic bishop and cardinal. Radziwiłł was also an Imperial Prince
Jun 13 Pomponio Nenna a Neapolitan Italian composer of the Renaissance. He is mainly remembered for his madrigals, which were influenced by Gesualdo, and for his polychoral sacred motets, posthumously published as Sacrae Hebdomadae Responsoria in 1622
Jun 24 Joan of Valois (1556) the twin sister of Victoria of Valois, the last child born to King Henry II of France and his wife, Catherine de' Medici.
Jun 24 Victoria of Valois and her twin sister Joan were the last children born to King Henry II of France and his wife, Catherine de' Medici.
Jul 25 George Peele most noted for his supposed but not universally accepted collaboration with William Shakespeare on the play Titus Andronicus.
Aug 17 Alexander Briant an English Jesuit and martyr, executed at Tyburn.
Aug 24 Sophia Brahe a Danish horticulturalist and student of astronomy, chemistry, and medicine, best known for assisting her brother Tycho Brahe with his astronomical observations.
Nov 15 Jacques Davy Duperron a French cardinal.
Nov 28 Francesco Contarini the 95th Doge of Venice, reigning from September 8, 1623 until his death fourteen months later.
Dec 17 Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana a poet who lived during the rule of Mughal emperor Akbar. He was one of the nine important ministers in his court, also known as the Navaratnas. Rahim is known for his Hindi couplets and his books on astrology. The village of Khankhana, which is named after him, is located in the Nawanshahr district of the state of Punjab, India