Died in 1556

Jan 27 Humayun now Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of northern India from 1531–1540 and again from 1555–1556. Like his father, Babur, he lost his kingdom early, but regained it with Persian aid, with additional territory. At the time of his death in 1556, the Mughal empire spanned almost one million square kilometers
Jan 30 Sebestyén Tinódi Lantos a 16th-century Hungarian lyricist, epic poet, political historian, and minstrel.
Feb 26 Frederick II Elector Palatine Prince-elector of the Palatinate from 1544 to 1556.
Mar 21 Thomas Cranmer a leader of the English Reformation and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and, for a short time, Mary He helped build the case for the annulment of Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, which was one of the causes of the separation of the English Church from union with the Holy See. Along with Thomas Cromwell, he supported the principle of Royal Supremacy, in which the king was considered sovereign over the Church within his realm
Apr 18 Luigi Alamanni an Italian poet and statesman. He was regarded as a prolific and versatile poet. He was credited with introducing the epigram into Italian poetry
Apr 26 Valentin Friedland an eminent German scholar and educationist of the Reformation. Friedland was a friend of Martin Luther and Melanchthon. His fame as a teacher was an attraction of Goldberg in Silesia, where he taught pupils from far and near. The secret of his success lay in his inculcating on his pupils respect for their own honour. He had a great faith in the intelligence that evinced itself in clear expression
May 4 Luca Ghini an Italian physician and botanist, notable as the creator of the first recorded herbarium, as well as the first botanical garden in Europe.
May 28 Saitō Dōsan a Japanese samurai during the Sengoku period.
Jun 10 Martin Agricola a German composer of Renaissance music and a music theorist.
Jun 12 Cristóbal de Castillejo a Spanish poet, a contemporary of Garcilaso de la Vega and Juan Boscán, who championed the use of traditional forms of Spanish poetry and criticized the use of Italianate forms such as the sonnet.
Jun 24 Joan of Valois (1556) the twin sister of Victoria of Valois, the last child born to King Henry II of France and his wife, Catherine de' Medici.
Jul 31 Ignatius of Loyola a Spanish knight from a local Basque noble family, hermit, priest since 1537, and theologian, who founded the Society of Jesus and, on 19 April 1541, became its first Superior General. Ignatius emerged as a religious leader during the Counter-Reformation. Loyola's devotion to the Catholic Church was characterized by absolute obedience to the Pope
Aug 17 Victoria of Valois and her twin sister Joan were the last children born to King Henry II of France and his wife, Catherine de' Medici.
Sep 9 Edward Courtenay 1st Earl of Devon an English nobleman during the rule of the Tudor dynasty. Born into a family with close royal connections, he was at various times considered a possible match for the two daughters of his first cousin, Henry VIII, both of whom became queens regnant of England
Oct 21 Pietro Aretino an Italian author, playwright, poet, satirist, and blackmailer, who wielded immense influence on contemporary art and politics and invented modern literate pornography.
Nov 5 Hemu a Hindu emperor of North India during the 16th century CE, a period when the Mughals and Afghans were vying for power in the region.
Nov 14 Giovanni della Casa a Florentine poet, writer on etiquette and society, diplomat, and inquisitor. He is celebrated for his famous treatise on polite behavior, Il Galateo overo de’ costumi. From the time of its publication, this courtesy book has enjoyed enormous success and influence. In the eighteenth century, influential critic Giuseppe Baretti wrote in The Italian Library , "The little treatise is looked upon by many Italians as the most elegant thing, as to stile, that we have in our language."
Dec 23 Nicholas Udall an English playwright, cleric, and schoolmaster, the author of Ralph Roister Doister, generally regarded as the first comedy written in the English language.