Died in 1557

Jan 2 Pontormo an Italian Mannerist painter and portraitist from the Florentine School. His work represents a profound stylistic shift from the calm perspectival regularity that characterized the art of the Florentine Renaissance. He is famous for his use of twining poses, coupled with ambiguous perspective; his figures often seem to float in an uncertain environment, unhampered by the forces of gravity
Jan 8 Albert Alcibiades Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach a Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, also known as Brandenburg-Bayreuth.
Jan 22 Archibald Douglas 6th Earl of Angus a Scottish nobleman active during the reigns of James V and Mary, Queen of Scots. He was the son of George, Master of Angus, who was killed at the Battle of Flodden, and succeeded as Earl of Angus on the death of his grandfather, Archibald
Apr 9 Mikael Agricola a clergyman who became the de facto founder of literary Finnish and a prominent proponent of the Protestant Reformation in Sweden including at the time Swedish territory Finland. He is often called the "father of literary Finnish". Agricola was consecrated as the bishop of Turku in 1554, without papal approval. As a result, he began a reform of the Finnish church along Lutheran lines. He translated the New Testament into Finnish and also produced the prayer book and hymns used in Finland's new Lutheran Church. This work set the rules of orthography that are the basis of modern Finnish spelling. His thorough work is particularly remarkable in that he accomplished it in only three years. He died suddenly while returning from a trip during which he negotiated a treaty with the Russians
Apr 21 Girolamo Parabosco an Italian writer, composer, organist, and poet of the Renaissance.
May 1 Ōuchi Yoshinaga a 16th-century Kyushu warrior who was invited by Sue Harukata, who had just taken control of the Ōuchi clan, to serve as the official head of the Ōuchi while Sue pulled the strings from behind. Yoshinaga was the younger brother of Ōtomo Yoshishige. Following Mōri Motonari's victory over Sue in 1555 at Miyajima, Yoshinaga's position became quite vulnerable. Yoshinaga was forced to commit suicide in 1557, effectively causing the Ōuchi clan to become extinct
Jun 11 John III of Portugal the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 13 December 1521 to 11 June 1557. He was the son of King Manuel I and Maria of Aragon, the third daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile. John succeeded his father in 1521, at the age of nineteen
Jul 16 Anne of Cleves Queen of England from 6 January 1540 to 9 July 1540 as the fourth wife of King Henry VIII. The marriage was declared never consummated, and she was not crowned queen consort. Following the annulment of their marriage, Anne was given a generous settlement by the King, and thereafter referred to as the King's Beloved Sister. She lived to see the coronation of Queen Mary I, outliving the rest of Henry's wives
Aug 1 Olaus Magnus a Swedish writer and Catholic ecclesiastic.
Sep 1 Jacques Cartier now Canada for France. Jacques Cartier was the first European to describe and map the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the shores of the Saint Lawrence River, which he named "The Country of Canadas", after the Iroquois names for the two big settlements he saw at Stadacona and at Hochelaga
Sep 13 John Cheke an English classical scholar and statesman, notable as the first Regius Professor of Greek at Cambridge University.
Sep 27 Emperor Go-Nara the 105th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. He reigned from June 9, 1526 until September 27, 1557, during the Sengoku period. His personal name was Tomohito. In older English literature, he may also be referred to as Nara II
Oct 23 Mohammed ash-Sheikh the first sultan of the Saadi dynasty ruling over Morocco. "Al-Drawi at-Tagmadert" means: the man from the Draa river valley, from Tagmadert. He was particularly successful in expelling the Portuguese from most of their bases in Morocco. He also eliminated the Wattasids and resisted the Ottomans, thereby establishing a complete rule over Morocco
Oct 25 William Cavendish (courtier) an English courtier. He was MP for Thirsk in 1547
Nov 15 Ferrante Gonzaga an Italian condottiero, a member of the House of Gonzaga and the founder of the branch of the Gonzaga of Guastalla.
Nov 19 Bona Sforza a member of the powerful House of Sforza, which ruled the Duchy of Milan since 1447. In 1518, she became the second wife of Sigismund I the Old, the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. Their marriage lasted 30 years until Sigismund's death in 1548. Ambitious and energetic, Bona became heavily involved in the political life of Poland–Lithuania. To increase state revenue, she implemented various economic and agricultural reforms, including the far-reaching Wallach Reform in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Her reforms made her the richest landowner in the Grand Duchy. In foreign policy, she opposed the Habsburgs and sought to secure her youngest daughter Isabella Jagiellon in the Kingdom of Hungary
Nov 19 Maria de' Medici (1540–1557) the eldest daughter of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Eleonora di Toledo. She was a member of the famous Medici family
Nov 22 Oda Nobuyuki the son of Oda Nobuhide and younger brother of Oda Nobunaga, who lived during the Sengoku period of Japan.
Dec 7 Mary FitzRoy Duchess of Richmond and Somerset the only daughter-in-law of King Henry VIII of England, being the wife of his only acknowledged illegitimate son, Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset.
Dec 13 Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia an Italian mathematician, engineer , a surveyor and a bookkeeper from the then-Republic of Venice. He published many books, including the first Italian translations of Archimedes and Euclid, and an acclaimed compilation of mathematics. Tartaglia was the first to apply mathematics to the investigation of the paths of cannonballs, known as ballistics, in his Nova Scientia, “A New Science;” his work was later partially validated and partially superseded by Galileo's studies on falling bodies. He also published a treatise on retrieving sunken ships