Died in 1558

Feb 25 Eleanor of Austria born an Archduchess of Austria and Infanta of Castile from the House of Habsburg, and subsequently became Queen consort of Portugal and of France. She also held the Duchy of Touraine as dower. She is called "Leonor" in Spanish and Portuguese and "Eléonore" or "Aliénor" in French
Mar 24 Anna van Egmont a wealthy Dutch heiress who became the first wife of William the Silent, Prince of Orange.
Mar 25 Marcos de Niza a Franciscan friar. He was born in Nice , which was at that time under the control of the Italian House of Savoy
Apr 15 Roxelana the favorite consort and later the legal wife of Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and the mother of Şehzade Mehmed, Mihrimah Sultan, Şehzade Abdullah, Sultan Selim II, Şehzade Bayezid and Şehzade Cihangir. She was one of the most powerful and influential women in Ottoman history and a prominent figure during the era known as the Sultanate of Women. She was "Haseki Sultan" when her husband, Suleiman I, reigned as Ottoman sultan. She achieved power and influenced the politics of the Ottoman Empire through her husband and played an active role in state affairs of the Empire
Apr 20 Johannes Bugenhagen also called Doctor Pomeranus by Martin Luther, introduced the Protestant Reformation in the Duchy of Pomerania and Denmark in the 16th century. Among his major accomplishments was organization of Lutheran churches in Northern Germany and Scandinavia. He has also been called second Apostle of the North
Apr 26 Jean Fernel a French physician who introduced the term "physiology" to describe the study of the body's function. He was the first person to describe the spinal canal. The lunar crater Fernelius is named after him
May 17 Francisco de Sá de Miranda For the 19th century Venezuelan politician with similar name, see Francisco de Miranda.
May 31 Philip Hoby a 16th-century English Ambassador to the Holy Roman Empire and Flanders.
Jun 21 Piero Strozzi an Italian military leader. He was a member of the rich Florentine family of the Strozzi
Jul 17 George I of Württemberg-Mömpelgard a son of the Duke Henry of Württemberg and his second wife, the Countess Eva of Salm.
Sep 21 Charles V Holy Roman Emperor ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I, of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I as Holy Roman Emperor and his son Philip II as King of Spain in 1556.
Oct 18 Mary of Hungary (governor of the Netherlands) queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia as the wife of King Louis II, and was later Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands.
Oct 21 Julius Caesar Scaliger an Italian scholar and physician who spent a major part of his career in France. He employed the techniques and discoveries of Renaissance humanism to defend Aristotelianism against the new learning. In spite of his arrogant and contentious disposition, his contemporary reputation was high, judging him so distinguished by his learning and talents that, according to Jacques August de Thou, none of the ancients could be placed above him, and the age in which he lived could not show his equal
Nov 17 Mary I of England Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death. Her executions of Protestants caused her opponents to give her the sobriquet "Bloody Mary"
Nov 17 Reginald Pole an English cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and the last Roman Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury, holding the office during the Counter Reformation.
Dec 28 Hermann Finck a German composer.