Died in 1559

Jan 1 Christian III of Denmark reigned as king of Denmark and Norway from 1534 until his death. He was the eldest son of King Frederick I and Anna of Brandenburg
Jan 25 Christian II of Denmark reigned as King of Denmark and Norway from 1513 until 1523 and of Sweden from 1520 until 1521. He was the oldest son of King John and belonged to the House of Oldenburg. Denmark was then an elective monarchy in which the nobility elected the new king, who had to share his power with them. After his short reign in Sweden, where he was also known as Christian the Tyrant , he was deposed by the nobleman Gustav Vasa. His reign in Denmark and Norway was cut short when his uncle deposed him and took the thrones as Frederick Christian was then exiled to the Netherlands, then ruled by his brother-in-law, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
Feb 12 Otto Henry Elector Palatine Count Palatine of Palatinate-Neuburg from 1505 to 1559 and prince elector of the Palatinate from 1556 to 1559. He was a son of Rupert, Count Palatine, third son of Philip, Elector Palatine; and of Elizabeth of Bavaria-Landshut, daughter of George of Bavaria
Mar 16 Anthony St Leger (Lord Deputy of Ireland) an English politician and Lord Deputy of Ireland during the Tudor period.
Mar 28 Wen Zhengming a leading Ming dynasty painter, calligrapher, and scholar.
Mar 30 Adam Ries a German mathematician. He is also known by the name Adam Riese
Jun 6 Fernão Lopes de Castanheda a Portuguese historian in the early Renaissance. His "History of the discovery and conquest of India", full of geographic and ethnographic objective information, was widely translated throughout Europe
Jul 10 Henry II of France a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559. The second son of Francis I, he became Dauphin of France upon the death of his elder brother Francis III, Duke of Brittany, in 1536
Aug 17 Lorenzo Priuli the 82nd Doge of Venice. He reigned from 1556 to 1559. His dogaressa was Zilia Dandolo
Aug 18 Pope Paul IV C.R. né Gian Pietro Carafa, was Pope from 23 May 1555 to his death in 1559. While serving as papal nuncio in Spain, he developed an anti-Spanish outlook that later coloured his papacy, and resulted in the Papal States suffering a serious military defeat in the Italian War of 1551–59
Sep 6 Benvenuto Tisi a Late-Renaissance-Mannerist Italian painter of the School of Ferrara. Garofalo's career began attached to the court of the Duke d'Este. His early works have been described as "idyllic", but they often conform to the elaborate conceits favored by the artistically refined Ferrarese court. His nickname, Garofalo, may derive from his habit of signing some works with a picture of a carnation
Sep 7 Robert Estienne a 16th-century printer and classical scholar in Paris. He was a former Catholic who became a Protestant late in his life and the first to print the Bible divided into standard numbered verses
Sep 15 Isabella Jagiellon Queen consort of the "Eastern Hungarian Kingdom" as the wife of John Zápolya.
Oct 2 Jacquet of Mantua a French composer of the Renaissance, who spent almost his entire life in Italy. He was an influential member of the generation between Josquin and Palestrina, and represents well the transitional polyphonic style between those two composers
Oct 3 Ercole II d'Este Duke of Ferrara Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio from 1534 to 1559. He was the eldest son of Alfonso I d'Este and Lucrezia Borgia
Oct 6 William I Count of Nassau-Dillenburg a count of Nassau-Dillenburg from the House of Nassau. He was not wealthy; his nickname the Rich refers to him having many children
Nov 10 Jacob Milich a German mathematician, physician and astronomer.
Nov 18 Cuthbert Tunstall an English Scholastic, church leader, diplomat, administrator and royal adviser. He served as Prince-Bishop of Durham during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I
Nov 20 Frances Grey Duchess of Suffolk the second child and eldest daughter of King Henry VIII's sister Mary and Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk. She was the mother of Lady Jane Grey
Dec 23 Anne du Bourg a French magistrat, nephew of the chancellor Antoine du Bourg.