Died in 1560

Jan 1 Joachim du Bellay a French poet, critic, and a member of the Pléiade.
Jan 8 Jan Łaski a Polish Protestant evangelical reformer. Owing to his influential work in England during the English Reformation, he is known to the English-speaking world by the Anglicised forms John a Lasco or John Laski
Feb 7 Bartolommeo Bandinelli a Renaissance Italian sculptor, draughtsman and painter.
Feb 11 Beltrán de la Cueva 3rd Duke of Alburquerque a Spanish nobleman and military leader.
Feb 16 Jean du Bellay a French cardinal and diplomat, younger brother of Guillaume du Bellay, and bishop of Bayonne in 1526, member of the privy council in 1530, and bishop of Paris in 1532.
Apr 19 Philipp Melanchthon a German reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation, intellectual leader of the Lutheran Reformation, and an influential designer of educational systems. He stands next to Luther and Calvin as a reformer, theologian, and molder of Protestantism. Along with Luther, he is the primary founder of Lutheranism. They both denounced what they believed was the exaggerated cult of the saints, asserted justification by faith, and denounced the coercion of the conscience in the sacrament of penance by the Catholic Church, that they believed could not offer certainty of salvation. In unison they rejected transubstantiation, the belief that the bread from the Lord's Supper becomes Christ's body when consumed. Melanchthon made the distinction between law and gospel the central formula for Lutheran evangelical insight. By the "law", he meant God's requirements both in Old and New Testament; the "gospel" meant the free gift of grace through faith in Jesus Christ
Jun 11 Mary of Guise queen of Scotland as the second spouse of King James She was the mother of Mary, Queen of Scots, and served as regent of Scotland in her daughter's name from 1554 to 1560. A native of Lorraine, she was a member of the powerful House of Guise, which played a prominent role in 16th-century French politics. Her main goal was a close alliance between the powerful French Catholic nation and small Scotland, which she wanted to be Catholic and independent of England. She failed and at her death the Protestants took control of Scotland. In evaluating her life, historian Rosalind Marshall says:
Jun 12 Ii Naomori a retainer of the Japanese Imagawa clan during the Sengoku period of the 16th century. During the Battle of Okehazama in 1560, Naomori was killed while trying to protect his lord, Imagawa Yoshimoto during the attack led by Oda Nobunaga, who surprised his enemy when he attacked in thick fog following a hard rain
Jun 12 Imagawa Yoshimoto one of the leading daimyo in the Sengoku period Japan. Based in Suruga Province, he was one of the three daimyo that dominated the Tōkaidō region. He was one of the dominant daimyo in Japan for a time, until his death in 1560
Aug 7 Anastasia Romanovna the first wife of the Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible and the first Russian tsaritsa. She was the daughter of Boyar Roman Yurievich Zakharyin-Yuriev, Okolnichi, who died on 16 February 1543, who gave his name to the Romanov Dynasty of Russian monarchs, and wife Uliana Ivanovna, who died in 1579
Sep 8 Amy Robsart the first wife of Lord Robert Dudley, favourite of Elizabeth I of England. She is primarily known for her death by falling down a flight of stairs, the circumstances of which have often been regarded as suspicious. Amy Robsart was the only child of a substantial Norfolk gentleman and at nearly 18 married Robert Dudley, a son of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland. In 1553 Robert Dudley was condemned to death and imprisoned in the Tower of London, where Amy Dudley was allowed to visit him. After his release the couple lived in strait financial circumstances until, with the accession of Elizabeth I in late 1558, Dudley became Master of the Horse, an important court office. The Queen soon fell in love with him and there was talk that Amy Dudley, who did not follow her husband to court, was suffering from an illness, and that Elizabeth would perhaps marry her favourite should his wife die. The rumours grew more sinister when Elizabeth remained single against the common expectation that she would accept one of her many foreign suitors
Sep 14 Anton Fugger a German merchant and member of the Fugger family. He was a nephew of Jacob Fugger
Sep 29 Gustav I of Sweden King of Sweden from 1523 until his death, previously self-recognised Protector of the Realm from 1521, during the ongoing Swedish War of Liberation against King Christian II of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Initially of low standing, Gustav rose to lead the rebel movement following the Stockholm Bloodbath, in which his father perished. Gustav's election as King on 6 June 1523 and his triumphant entry into Stockholm eleven days later meant the end of Medieval Sweden's elective monarchy as well as the Kalmar Union. This created a hereditary monarchy under the House of Vasa and its successors, including the current House of Bernadotte
Sep 30 Melchior Cano a Spanish Scholastic theologian.
Nov 12 Caspar Aquila a German reformer.
Nov 15 Domingo de Soto a Dominican priest and Scholastic theologian born in Segovia, Spain, and died in Salamanca at the age of 66. He is best known as one of the major figures of the philosophical movement known as the School of Salamanca, together with Francisco de Vitoria
Nov 25 Andrea Doria a Genoese condottiero and admiral.
Dec 2 Georg Sabinus a German poet, diplomat and academic.
Dec 5 Francis II of France a monarch of the House of Valois-Angoulême who was King of France from 1559 to 1560. He was also King consort of Scotland as a result of his marriage to Mary, Queen of Scots, from 1558 until his death