Born in 1561

Jan 6 Thomas Fincke a Danish mathematician and physicist, and a professor at the University of Copenhagen for more than 60 years.
Jan 22 Francis Bacon an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, essayist, and author. He served both as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England. After his death, he remained extremely influential through his works, especially as philosophical advocate and practitioner of the scientific method during the scientific revolution
Mar 9 Archduke Wenceslaus of Austria a German prince and member of the House of Habsburg and since 1577 Grand Prior of the Order of Malta in Castile.
Mar 29 Santorio Santorio an Italian physiologist, physician, and professor. He introduced the quantitative approach into medicine and, as his pupil, introduced the mechanistic principles of Galileo Galilei to medicine. His work De medicina statica influenced generations of physicians
Jul 11 Luis de Góngora a Spanish Baroque lyric poet. Góngora and his lifelong rival, Francisco de Quevedo, are widely considered the most prominent Spanish poets of all time. His style is characterized by what was called culteranismo, also known as Gongorism. This style existed in stark contrast to Quevedo's conceptismo
Jul 24 Maria of the Palatinate-Simmern a German Princess and a Swedish Princess and Duchess of Södermanland by marriage, the first spouse of the future King Charles IX of Sweden. She died before he became King, and was therefore never Queen
Jul 25 Katō Kiyomasa a Japanese daimyō of the Azuchi-Momoyama and Edo period.
Aug 4 John Harington (writer) a courtier, author and master of art, popularly known as the inventor of the flush toilet. He became a prominent member of Queen Elizabeth I's court, and was known as her "saucy Godson". But because of his poetry and other writings, he fell in and out of favour with the Queen
Aug 20 Jacopo Peri often called the inventor of opera. He wrote the first work to be called an opera today, Dafne , and also the first opera to have survived to the present day, Euridice
Aug 24 Bartholomaeus Pitiscus a 16th-century German trigonometrist, astronomer and theologian who first coined the word Trigonometry.
Aug 25 Philippe van Lansberge a Dutch Calvinist Minister, astronomer and Mathematician. His name is sometimes written Lansberg, and his first name is sometimes given as Philip or Johannes Philippus. He published under the Latin name Philippus Lansbergius
Sep 10 Hernando Arias de Saavedra a soldier and politician of criollo ancestry. He was the first person born in the Americas to become a governor of a European colony in the New World, serving three terms as governor of Rio de la Plata province, 1597-1599, 1602–1609, and 1615-1617
Sep 29 Adriaan van Roomen a Flemish mathematician.
Oct 24 Anthony Babington convicted of plotting the assassination of Elizabeth I of England and conspiring with the imprisoned Mary, Queen of Scots. The "Babington Plot" and Mary's involvement in it were the basis of the treason charges against her which led to her execution
Dec 7 Kikkawa Hiroie a Japanese daimyo of the Azuchi-Momoyama period through early Edo period.
Dec 9 Edwin Sandys (died 1629) an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1589 and 1626. He was also one of the founders of the proprietary Virginia Company of London, which in 1606 established the first permanent English settlement in what is now the United States in the colony of Virginia, based at Jamestown