Died in 1561

Jan 9 Amago Haruhisa a powerful warlord in Chūgoku region, Japan. He is the second son of Amago Masahisa. Initially named Akihisa , he changed his name to Haruhisa in 1541 after Ashikaga Yoshiharu offered to let him use a kanji from his name
Jan 31 Bairam Khan an important military commander, among top generals, later commander in chief of the Mughal army, a powerful statesman and regent at the court of the Mughal emperors Humayun and Akbar, also guardian, chief mentor, advisor, teacher and most trusted person of Humayun. Humayun honored him as Khan Khanan,means king of kings. Bairam actually was not "Khan": his real name was Bairam "Beg". The Shah of Iran, Tamasp, honored him as 'Kha' or Khan
Jan 31 Menno Simons an Anabaptist religious leader from the Friesland region of the Low Countries. Simons was a contemporary of the Protestant Reformers and his followers became known as Mennonites. "Menno Simons" is the Dutch version of his name; the Frisian version is Minne Simens , the possessive "s" creating a patronym meaning "Minne, son of Simen"
Feb 13 Francis I Duke of Nevers a commander in the French Royal Army and the first Duke of Nevers. He participated in the suppression of the Amboise conspiracy
Feb 26 Jorge de Montemor a Portuguese novelist and poet, who wrote almost exclusively in Spanish. His most famous work is a pastoral prose romance, the Diana
Mar 6 Carlo Carafa successively condottiero in the service of France and of Spain, vying for their protectorates in Italy until 1555, when he was made a cardinal, to 1559 the all-powerful favourite and Cardinal Nephew of Pope Paul IV Carafa, whose policies he directed and whom he served as papal legate in Paris, Venice and Brussels. According to the Jesuit and later Cardinal Pietro Sforza Pallavicino, writing the history of the Council of Trent, his subtlety of spirit and grace of address, physical courage and instinct for glory were overridden by his insatiable thirst for power
Mar 24 Giulio d'Este the illegitimate son of Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, the result of an affair with Isabella Arduin, a lady in the service of Ercole's wife. He is known for the conflicts he had with his half brother Ippolito d'Este, which culminated in a failed conspiracy that Giulio conducted against both Ippolito and another half brother Alfonso I d'Este, then Duke of Ferrara
Mar 30 Andrés Hurtado de Mendoza 3rd Marquis of Cañete a Spanish military officer and, from June 29, 1556 to his death on March 30, 1561, the fifth Viceroy of Peru.
Apr 21 Lucrezia de' Medici Duchess of Ferrara the daughter of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Eleanor of Toledo.
May 16 Jan Tarnowski a Polish szlachcic , knight, military commander, military theoretician, and statesman of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. He was Grand Crown Hetman from 1527, and was the founder of the city of Tarnopol, where he built the Ternopil Castle and the Ternopil Pond
Jun 6 Catherine of Mecklenburg the daughter of the Duke Magnus II of Mecklenburg and Sophie of Pomerania-Stettin. She married on 6 July 1512 in Freiberg Duke Henry the Pious of Saxony. The couple had six children:
Jun 6 Ridolfo Ghirlandaio an Italian Renaissance painter active mainly in Florence. Ridolfo Ghirlandaio was the son of the Italian Renaissance painter Domenico Ghirlandaio
Jun 23 Saitō Yoshitatsu a Japanese samurai during the Sengoku period.
Jul 9 Sebald Heyden a German musicologist, cantor, theologian, hymn-writer and religious poet. He is perhaps best known for his De arte canendi which is considered to have had a major impact on scholarship and the teaching of singing to young boys. It has been speculated that Heyden was the world's first true musicologist
Jul 10 Rüstem Pasha an Ottoman Croatian statesman. He served as the grand vizier of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. Rüstem Pasha is also known as Damat Rüstem Pasha because of his marriage to one of the sultan's daughters
Sep 10 Takeda Nobushige a samurai of Japan's Sengoku period, and younger brother of Takeda Shingen. Takeda Nobushige held the favor of their father, and was meant to inherit the Takeda lands, wealth and power, becoming head of the clan. However, Shingen rebelled against their father and seized the lands and power for himself. Nobushige nevertheless fought alongside his brother who relied on him for support, He is famous not only for his strategic insight but also his wisdom; he wrote among other things Kyūjūkyū Kakun, a set of 99 short rules for Takeda clan members, some of which are erroneously attributed to Shingen himself from time to time. He is also known as Takeda Tenkyū
Sep 25 Şehzade Bayezid an Ottoman prince , who attempted to win the throne of the Ottoman Empire.
Oct 18 Yamamoto Kansuke (general) a Japanese samurai of the Sengoku period. He was known as one of the "Twenty-Four Generals of Takeda Shingen". Also known by his formal name, Haruyuki. He was a brilliant strategist, and is particularly known for his plan which led to victory in the fourth battle of Kawanakajima against Uesugi Kenshin. However, Kansuke never lived to see his plan succeed; thinking it to have failed, he charged headlong into the enemy ranks, dying in battle
Oct 27 Lope de Aguirre a Basque Spanish conquistador in South America. Nicknamed El Loco , he styled himself '"Wrath of God, Prince of Freedom, King of Tierra Firme". Aguirre is best known for his final expedition down the Amazon river in search of the mythical golden King El Dorado. In 1561 Aguirre sent a letter which defied the Spanish monarch Philip II by declaring an independent state of Peru. Aguirre's expedition ended with his death. Since his death, Aguirre has come to be considered a symbol of cruelty and treachery in colonial Spanish America, and has become an antihero in literature, cinema and other arts
Nov 11 Hans Tausen born at Birkende on Funen in 1494 and died in Ribe in 1561. He published the first translation of the Pentateuch into Danish in 1535
Dec 10 Caspar Schwenckfeld a German theologian, writer, and preacher who became a Protestant Reformer and spiritualist, one of the earliest promoters of the Protestant Reformation in Silesia.