Born in 1564

Feb 15 Galileo Galilei an Italian physicist, mathematician, engineer, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the scientific revolution during the Renaissance. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism. Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics", the "father of science", and "the father of modern science"
Feb 26 Christopher Marlowe an English dramatist, poet and translator of the Elizabethan era. Marlowe was the foremost Elizabethan tragedian of his day. He greatly influenced William Shakespeare, who was born in the same year as Marlowe and who rose to become the pre-eminent Elizabethan playwright after Marlowe's mysterious early death. Marlowe's plays are known for the use of blank verse, and their overreaching protagonists
Mar 9 David Fabricius a German pastor who made two major discoveries in the early days of telescopic astronomy, jointly with his eldest son, Johannes Fabricius.
Apr 26 William Shakespeare an English poet, playwright, and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon". His extant works, including some collaborations, consist of about 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and a few other verses, the authorship of some of which is uncertain. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright
Apr 26 Shakespeare's influence William Shakespeare's influence extends from theatre and literature to present-day movies and the English language itself. Widely regarded as the greatest writer of the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist, Shakespeare transformed European theatre by expanding expectations about what could be accomplished through characterization, plot, language and genre. Shakespeare's writings have also impacted a large number of notable novelists and poets over the years, including Herman Melville and Charles Dickens, and continue to influence new authors even today. Shakespeare is the most quoted writer in the history of the English-speaking world after the various writers of the Bible, and many of his quotations and neologisms have passed into everyday usage in English and other languages
May 26 Ahmad Sirhindi an Indian Islamic scholar of Arab origin, a Hanafi jurist, and a prominent member of the Naqshbandī Sufi order. He has been described as the Mujaddid Alf Thānī, meaning the "reviver of the second millennium", for his work in rejuvenating Islam and opposing the heterodoxies prevalent in the time of Mughal Emperor Akbar. While early South Asian scholarship credited him for contributing to conservative trends in Indian Islam, more recent works, notably by ter Haar, Friedman, and Buehler, have pointed to Sirhindi's significant contributions to Sufi epistemology and practices
May 27 Margherita Gonzaga Duchess of Ferrara an Italian noblewoman, the daughter of William I, Duke of Mantua and Eleonora of Austria, and the sister of Vincent I, Duke of Mantua and Anna Caterina Gonzaga. She was the wife of Alfonso II d'Este, Duke of Ferrara and Modena, whom she married in February 1579. This was the duke's third marriage, and it was hoped that she would produce a male heir. She did not, which partially led to the city of Ferrara's acquisition by the Papal States
Jun 11 Joseph Heintz the Elder a Swiss painter, draftsman and architect.
Jun 12 John Casimir Duke of Saxe-Coburg the Duke of Saxe-Coburg. He was the descendant of the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin
Aug 18 Federico Borromeo an Italian cardinal and archbishop of Milan.
Sep 13 Vincenzo Giustiniani an aristocratic Italian banker, art collector and intellectual of the late 16th and early 17th centuries, known today largely for the Giustiniani art collection, assembled at Palazzo Giustiniani, close by the Pantheon, Rome, and at the family palazzo at Bassano by Vincenzo and his brother, Cardinal Benedetto, and for his patronage of the artist Caravaggio.
Sep 24 William Adams (sailor) an English navigator who travelled to Japan becoming the first ever Western Samurai. Adams was also to be the first Englishman ever to reach that country and was the inspiration for the character of John Blackthorne in James Clavell's best-selling novel Shōgun
Oct 15 Henry Julius Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and prince of Wolfenbüttel from 1589 until his death. In 1576 he had become the first rector of the Protestant University of Helmstedt
Oct 26 Hans Leo Hassler a German composer and organist of the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras, elder brother of composer Jakob Hassler. He was born in Nuremberg and died in Frankfurt am Main
Nov 3 Francisco Pacheco an important source for the study of 17th-century practice in Spain. He is described by some as the Vasari of Seville: voluble and didactic about his theories of painting and thoughts about painters, conventional and uninspired in his executions
Nov 11 Martinus Smiglecius a Polish Jesuit philosopher, known for his erudite scholastic Logica of 1618.
Nov 22 Henry Brooke 11th Baron Cobham an English peer who was implicated in the Main Plot against the rule of James I of England.