Died in 1564

Jan 4 Hosokawa Ujitsuna a Japanese military commander and Deputy Shogun of the Hosokawa clan in the end of the Muromachi period and Sengoku period of the 16th century. He was the foster son of Hosokawa Takakuni
Feb 18 Michelangelo an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. Despite making few forays beyond the arts, his versatility in the disciplines he took up was of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man, along with his fellow Italian Leonardo da Vinci
Feb 20 Diego López de Zúñiga 4th Count of Nieva the sixth viceroy of Peru, from April 17, 1561 to his death on February 20, 1564.
Mar 27 Lütfi Pasha an Ottoman statesman and grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire under Suleiman the Magnificent from 1539 to 1541.
Apr 1 Christoph Froschauer the first printer in Zurich, notably for printing the Froschauer Bible, the Zwinglian Bible translation. His workshop is the nucleus of the Orell Füssli publishing house
May 2 Rodolfo Pio da Carpi an Italian Cardinal, humanist and patron of the arts. He formed a great library and was at the center of humanist studies in 16th-century Rome, though serving on the Roman Inquisition. He was a trusted advisor to Pope Pius III and helped to establish the Inquisition at Milan
May 27 John Calvin an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism. Originally trained as a humanist lawyer, he broke from the Roman Catholic Church around 1530. After religious tensions provoked a violent uprising against Protestants in France, Calvin fled to Geneva, Switzerland, where he published the first edition of his seminal work Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1536
Jun 24 Rani Durgavati born in the family of famous Rajput Chandel Emperor Keerat Rai. She was born at the fort of Kalanjar. Chandel Dynasty is famous in the Indian history for the defense of king Vidyadhar who repulsed the attacks of Mahmud Ghaznavi. Her love for sculptures is shown in the world famed temples of Khajuraho and Kalanjar fort. Rani Durgavati maravi's achievements further enhanced the glory of her ancestral tradition of courage and patronage of arts
Jul 25 Ferdinand I Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death. Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his elder brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Aug 30 Sabina of Bavaria born Duchess of Bavaria and became wife of Ulrich, Duke of Württemberg.
Sep 3 Julius von Pflug the last Catholic bishop of the Diocese of Naumburg from 1542 until his death. He was one of the most significant reformers involved with the Protestant Reformation
Sep 26 Theodore Bibliander a Swiss Orientalist, publisher, and linguist. Born Theodor Buchmann in Bischofszell, he studied Latin under Oswald Myconius, and Greek and Hebrew under Jakob Ceporin, and attended lectures in Basel between 1525–7 given by Johannes Oecolampadius and Konrad Pelikan. He also became familiar with the Arabic language and other languages from the East; he became a professor of theology. He published a Hebrew grammar in 1535, and commentaries on the Bible. He published the first printed edition of the Qur'an in Latin , based on the medieval translation of Robert of Ketton. The edition included Doctrina Machumet, a translation of the Arabic theological tract known as the Book of a Thousand Questions. Considered the father of biblical exegesis in Switzerland, Bibliander became involved in a doctrinal controversy with Pietro Martire Vermigli over predestination; he was removed from his theological professorship in 1560. He died of the plague
Oct 5 Pierre de Manchicourt a Renaissance composer of the Franco-Flemish School.
Oct 15 Andreas Vesalius a Brabantian anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica. Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy. He was professor at the University of Padua and later became Imperial physician at the court of Emperor Charles V
Oct 18 Johannes Acronius Frisius a Dutch doctor and mathematician of the 16th century.
Dec 6 Ambrosius Blarer an influential reformer in southern Germany and north-eastern Switzerland.