Died in 1568

Jan 14 Nicolaus Olahus the Archbishop of Esztergom, Primate of Hungary, and a distinguished Roman Catholic prelate.
Jan 26 Lady Catherine Grey the younger sister of Lady Jane Grey. A granddaughter of Henry VIII's sister Mary, she was a potential successor to her cousin, Queen Elizabeth I of England, but incurred Elizabeth's wrath by her secret marriage to Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford. Following her arrest when the queen was informed of her clandestine marriage, she lived in captivity until her death, having borne two sons in the Tower of London
Mar 19 Elizabeth Seymour Lady Cromwell the daughter of Sir John Seymour of Wulfhall, Wiltshire and Margery Wentworth. Elizabeth and her sister Jane, served in the household of Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry VIII. In his quest for a male heir, the king had divorced his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, whose only surviving child was a daughter, Mary. His marriage to Anne Boleyn had also resulted in a single daughter, Elizabeth. The queen's miscarriage of a son in January 1536 sealed her fate. The king, convinced that Anne could never give him male children, increasingly infatuated with Jane Seymour, and encouraged by the queen's enemies, was determined to replace her. The Seymours rose to prominence after the king's attention turned to Jane
Mar 20 Albert Duke of Prussia the last Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, who after converting to Lutheranism, became the first monarch of the Duchy of Prussia, the secularized state that emerged from the former Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights. Albert was the first European ruler to establish Protestantism as the official state religion of his lands. He proved instrumental in the political spread of Protestantism in its early stage, ruling the Prussian lands for nearly six decades
May 6 Bernardo Salviati an Italian condottiero and Roman Catholic Cardinal.
May 13 Sophie of Pomerania known for her independent rule over her fiefs Lolland and Falster, the castles in Kiel and Plön, and several villages in Holsten as queen.
Jun 3 Andrés de Urdaneta a Spanish circumnavigator, explorer and Augustinian friar. As a navigator he achieved in 1536 the "second" world circumnavigation. Urdaneta discovered and plotted a path across the Pacific from the Philippines to Acapulco in the Viceroyalty of New Spain used by the Manila galleons, which came to be known as "Urdaneta's route." He was considered as "protector of the Indians" for his treatment of the Filipino natives; also Cebu and the Philippines' first prelate
Jun 5 Willem Key a Flemish renaissance painter.
Jun 5 Lamoral Count of Egmont a general and statesman in the Habsburg Netherlands just before the start of the Eighty Years' War, whose execution helped spark the national uprising that eventually led to the independence of the Netherlands.
Jul 13 William Turner (naturalist) an English divine and reformer, a physician and a natural historian. He studied medicine in Italy, and was a friend of the great Swiss naturalist, Conrad Gessner. He was an early herbalist and ornithologist, and it is in these fields that the most interest lies today
Jul 24 Carlos Prince of Asturias the eldest son and heir-apparent of King Philip II of Spain. His mother was Maria Manuela of Portugal, daughter of John III of Portugal. Carlos was mentally unstable and was imprisoned by his father in early 1568, dying after half a year of solitary confinement. His fate was a theme in Spain's Black Legend, and inspired a play by Friedrich Schiller and an opera by Giuseppe Verdi
Aug 15 Stanislaus Kostka a Polish novice of the Society of Jesus. In the Catholic Church he is venerated as Saint Stanislaus Kostka
Aug 21 Jean Parisot de Valette a French nobleman and 49th Grand Master of the Order of Malta, from 21 August 1557 to his death in 1568. As a Knight Hospitaller, joining the order in the Langue de Provence, he fought with distinction against the Turks at Rhodes. As Grand Master, Valette became the Order's hero and most illustrious leader, commanding the resistance against the Ottomans at the Great Siege of Malta in 1565, sometimes regarded as one of the greatest sieges of all time
Oct 3 Elisabeth of Valois a Spanish queen consort. The eldest daughter of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici, she married Philip II of Spain as his third wife
Oct 14 Jacques Arcadelt a Netherlandish composer of the Renaissance, active in both Italy and France, and principally known as a composer of secular vocal music. Although he also wrote sacred vocal music, he was one of the most famous of the early composers of madrigals; his first book of madrigals, published within a decade of the appearance of the earliest examples of the form, was the most widely printed collection of madrigals of the entire era. In addition to his work as a madrigalist, and distinguishing him from the other prominent early composers of madrigals – Philippe Verdelot and Costanzo Festa – he was equally prolific and adept at composing chansons, particularly late in his career when he lived in Paris
Oct 28 Ashikaga Yoshihide the 14th shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate who held nominal power for a few months in 1568 during the Muromachi period of Japan. When he became shogun, he changed his name to Yoshinaga, but he is more conventionally recognized today by the name Yoshihide
Dec 28 Christoph Duke of Württemberg ruled as Duke of Württemberg from 1550 until his death in 1568.
Dec 30 Roger Ascham an English scholar and didactic writer, famous for his prose style, his promotion of the vernacular, and his theories of education. He acted as Princess Elizabeth's tutor in Greek and Latin between 1548 and 1550, and served in the administrations of Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth I
Dec 31 Shimazu Tadayoshi a daimyo of Satsuma Province during Japan's Sengoku period.