Born in 1571

Jan 9 Charles Bonaventure de Longueval Count of Bucquoy a military commander who fought for Spain and the Holy Roman Empire during the Thirty Years' War.
Jan 27 Abbas I of Persia the 5th Safavid Shah Emperor of Iran, and generally considered the greatest ruler of the Safavid dynasty. He was the third son of Shah Mohammad
Feb 15 Michael Praetorius a German composer, organist, and music theorist. He was one of the most versatile composers of his age, being particularly significant in the development of musical forms based on Protestant hymns, many of which reflect an effort to improve the relationship between Protestants and Catholics
Mar 31 Pietro Aldobrandini an Italian Cardinal and patron of the arts.
May 11 Niwa Nagashige a Japanese daimyo who served the Oda clan. Nagashige was the eldest son of Niwa Nagahide and married an adopted daughter of Oda Nobunaga. He took part in his first campaign in 1583, assisting his father in the battles against Shibata Katsuie. In the Battle of Nagakute, at the age of thirteen, Nagashige led a troop of Niwa clan in the place of his father, who was ill
Jun 17 Thomas Mun an English writer on economics who has been called the last of the early mercantilists. He was among the first to recognize the exportation of service, or invisible items, as valuable trade, and made early statements strongly in support of capitalism. He had a set of "means to enrich a kingdom" which supported foreign trade by means of exporting more than importing. In other words if you spend more than you make then your wealth will decrease. In order to increase your exports and decrease your imports he said that you must: 1. use all available resources, 2. Don't follow trends and if you do follow trends then only follow domestic ones, 3. export through your own means, and 4. if it is too expensive to buy locally then people will buy somewhere else
Jul 16 Theodoor Galle a Flemish Baroque engraver.
Aug 2 Charles Duke of Guise the son of Henry I, Duke of Guise and Catherine of Cleves.
Aug 7 Thomas Lupo the elder an English composer and viol player of the late Elizabethan and Jacobean eras. Along with Orlando Gibbons, John Coprario, and Alfonso Ferrabosco, he was one of the principal developers of the repertory for viol consort
Sep 29 Caravaggio an Italian painter active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily between 1592 and 1610. His paintings, which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, had a formative influence on Baroque painting
Oct 18 Wolfgang Ratke a German educational reformer.
Dec 9 Metius a Dutch geometer and astronomer. He was born in Alkmaar. The name Metius comes from the Dutch word meten , and therefore means something like "measurer" or "surveyor."
Dec 27 Johannes Kepler a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. These works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation
Dec 31 Emperor Go-Yōzei the 107th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.