Born in 1574

Jan 17 Robert Fludd a prominent English Paracelsian physician. He is remembered as an astrologer, mathematician, cosmologist, Qabalist and Rosicrucian apologist
Mar 4 Carl Gyllenhielm a Swedish soldier and politician. He was made a baron in 1615, appointed Field Marshal in 1616, Privy Councilor in 1617, Governor General of Ingria in 1617 and served as Lord High Admiral from 1620 until his death
Mar 5 Frederick IV Elector Palatine of the Rhine , only surviving son of Louis VI, Elector Palatine and Elisabeth of Hesse, called "Frederick the Righteous".
Mar 5 William Oughtred The Rev. William Oughtred was an English mathematician and Anglican minister
May 6 Pope Innocent X pope from 15 September 1644 to his death in 1655.
May 14 Francesco Rasi an Italian composer, singer , chitarrone player, and poet.
Jun 20 Wilhelm Kettler the second Duke of Courland, a region of Latvia. Wilhelm ruled the western Courland portion of the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia while his brother Friedrich ruled the eastern Semigallia portion
Jul 1 Joseph Hall (bishop) an English bishop, satirist and moralist. His contemporaries knew him as a devotional writer, and a high-profile controversialist of the early 1640s. In church politics, he tended in fact to a middle way
Jul 24 Thomas Platter the Younger a Swiss-born physician, traveller and diarist, the son of the humanist Thomas Platter the Elder.
Aug 7 Robert Dudley (explorer) an English explorer and cartographer. In 1594, he led an expedition to the West Indies, of which he wrote an account. The illegitimate son of Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, he inherited the bulk of the Earl's estate in accordance with his father's will, including Kenilworth Castle. In 1603–1605 he tried unsuccessfully to establish his legitimacy in court. After that he left England forever, finding a new existence in the service of the Grand Dukes of Tuscany. There he worked as an engineer and shipbuilder and designed and published Dell'Arcano del Mare, the first maritime atlas to cover the whole world. He was also a skilled navigator and mathematician. In Italy he styled himself "Earl of Warwick and Leicester", as well as "Duke of Northumberland", a title recognized by the Emperor Ferdinand II
Aug 13 Samuel de Champlain a French navigator, cartographer, draughtsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler. He founded New France and Quebec City on July 3, 1608. He is important to Canadian history because he made the first accurate map of the coast and he helped establish the settlements
Sep 18 Claudio Achillini an Italian philosopher, theologian, mathematician, poet, and jurist.
Sep 29 Ludovic Stewart 2nd Duke of Lennox a Scottish nobleman and politician. He was the son of Esmé Stewart, 1st Duke of Lennox, and his wife, Catherine de Balsac. Ludovic was involved in the Plantation of Ulster in Ireland and the colonization of Maine in New England. Richmond's Island and Cape Richmond, as well as Richmond, Maine , are named for him
Dec 8 Maria Anna of Bavaria (1574–1616) daughter of William V, Duke of Bavaria and Renata of Lorraine.
Dec 10 Mikołaj Łęczycki a Polish Jesuit, Catholic theologian, writer and mystic.
Dec 12 Adam Wenceslaus Duke of Cieszyn a Duke of Cieszyn from 1579 until his death.
Dec 12 Anne of Denmark Queen consort of Scotland, England, and Ireland as the wife of James VI and I.