Died in 1576

Jan 8 Lope García de Castro a Spanish colonial administrator, member of the Council of the Indies and of the Audiencias of Panama and Lima. From September 2, 1564 to November 26, 1569 he was interim viceroy of Peru
Jan 19 Hans Sachs a German meistersinger , poet, playwright, and shoemaker.
Feb 10 Wilhelm Xylander a German classical scholar and humanist.
Feb 12 John Albert I Duke of Mecklenburg the reigning Duke of Mecklenburg-Güstrow from 1547 to 1556 and of Mecklenburg-Schwerin from 1556 to 1576. In 1549 John Albert I saw to it that the parliament of Mecklenburg carried through the Reformation for the entire Duchy
Mar 5 Luis de Requesens y Zúñiga a Spanish politician and diplomat.
Mar 11 Juan de Salcedo Not to be confused with Juan Salcedo, Jr.
May 14 Tahmasp I an influential Shah of Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid dynasty. He was the son and successor of Ismail I
Jun 2 Volcher Coiter a Dutch anatomist who established the study of comparative osteology and first described cerebrospinal meningitis.
Jul 2 Josias Simmler a Swiss theologian and classicist, author of the first book relating solely to the Alps.
Jul 11 Eleonora di Garzia di Toledo the daughter of García Álvarez de Toledo, 4th Marquis of Villafranca, Duke of Fernandina, and the wife of Don Pietro de' Medici, a son of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. Leonora was born in Florence, where she was brought up by Cosimo and Eleanor of Toledo, her aunt and namesake. Betrothed to their son Pietro at the age of 15, she blossomed under the wing of Pietro's older sister, the artistic patron Isabella, into a vivacious and witty beauty. Her marriage, like Isabella's, was not a success, and she followed her mentor's example of taking lovers. For this reason, Pietro had her brought in 1576 to the country retreat of Cafaggiolo, where he strangled her to death with a dog leash. Cosimo's successor, Francesco I, tacitly approved the murder, and Pietro was never brought to justice for it
Jul 16 Isabella de' Medici the daughter of Cosimo I de' Medici, first Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Eleonora di Toledo. She was raised and educated in a humanist manner with her siblings, including Francesco de' Medici who succeeded their father as the Grand Duke of Tuscany. To secure a relationship with the powerful Roman Orsinis, Isabella's father arranged her marriage to Paolo Giordano I Orsini when she was 16. She remained in her father's household after her marriage, giving her an unusual degree of independence for a woman of her period. Following the death of her father, Isabella was probably murdered, with the complicity of her husband and brother, and in retribution for her relationship with Paolo Giordano's cousin Troilo Orsini
Aug 22 Bálint Bakfark a Hungarian and Polish composer of Saxon origin, and lutenist of the Renaissance. He was enormously influential as a lutenist in his time, and renowned as a virtuoso on the instrument
Aug 27 Titian an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school. He was born in Pieve di Cadore, near Belluno. During his lifetime he was often called da Cadore, taken from the place of his birth
Sep 21 Gerolamo Cardano an Italian Renaissance mathematician, physician, astrologer, philosopher and gambler. He wrote more than 200 works on medicine, mathematics, physics, philosophy, religion, and music. His gambling led him to formulate elementary rules in probability, making him one of the founders of the field
Oct 12 Maximilian II Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 until his death. He was crowned King of Bohemia in Prague on 14 May 1562 and elected King of Germany on 24 November 1562. On 16 July 1563 he was crowned King of Hungary and Croatia in Pressburg. On 25 July 1564 he succeeded his father Ferdinand I as ruler of the Holy Roman Empire
Oct 19 George Gordon 5th Earl of Huntly Lord Chancellor of Scotland and major conspirator of his time.
Oct 26 Frederick III Elector Palatine a ruler from the house of Wittelsbach, branch Palatinate-Simmern-Sponheim. He was a son of John II of Simmern and inherited the Palatinate from the childless Elector Otto-Henry, Elector Palatine in 1559. He was a devout convert to Calvinism, and made Calvinism the official religion of his domain. Under his supervision the Heidelberg Catechism was constructed. His support of Calvinism gave the German Reformed movement a foothold within the Holy Roman Empire