Born in 1580

Jan 12 Alexander Ruthven a Scottish nobleman. He is most notable for his participation in the Gowrie conspiracy of 1600
Jan 12 Jan Baptist van Helmont a Flemish chemist, physiologist, and physician. He worked during the years just after Paracelsus and iatrochemistry, and is sometimes considered to be "the founder of pneumatic chemistry". Van Helmont is remembered today largely for his ideas on spontaneous generation, his 5-year tree experiment, and his introduction of the word "gas" into the vocabulary of scientists
Apr 8 William Herbert 3rd Earl of Pembroke the son of Henry Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke and his third wife Mary Sidney. Chancellor of the University of Oxford, he founded Pembroke College, Oxford with King James. He was warden of the Forest of Dean, and constable of St Briavels from 1608 to 1630. He served as Lord Chamberlain from 1615 to 1625. In 1623, the First Folio of William Shakespeare's plays was dedicated to him, together with his brother, Philip Herbert, 1st Earl of Montgomery
Apr 8 Augusta of Denmark the third daughter of King Frederick II of Denmark and Sophia of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, and Duchess of Holstein-Gottorp as the wife of Duke John Adolf. She was politically influential during the reign of her son, Duke Frederick III
May 6 Charles Gonzaga Duke of Mantua and Montferrat Duke of Mantua and Duke of Montferrat from 1627 until his death. He was also Duke of Rethel and Nevers, as well as Prince of Arches
Jun 6 Godefroy Wendelin a Flemish astronomer who was born in Herk-de-Stad. He is also known by the Latin name Vendelinus. His name is sometimes given as Godefroy Wendelin; his first name spelt Godefroid or Gottfried
Jun 9 Daniel Heinsius one of the most famous scholars of the Dutch Renaissance.
Jun 13 Willebrord Snellius a Dutch astronomer and mathematician, known in the English-speaking world as Snell. In the west, especially the English speaking countries, his name has been attached to the law of refraction of light for several centuries, but it is now known that this law was first discovered by Ibn Sahl in 984. The same law was also investigated by Ptolemy and in the Middle Ages by Witelo, but due to lack of adequate mathematical instruments their results were saved as tables, not functions
Jun 26 Gaspar de Borja y Velasco a Spanish cardinal, ecclesiastic and politician. He belonged to the house of Borgia and served as Primate of Spain, Archbishop of Seville, Archbishop of Toledo and viceroy of Naples
Jul 5 Carlo Contarini the 100th Doge of Venice, reigning from his election on March 27, 1655 until his death a little over a year later.
Jul 6 Johann Stobäus a North German composer and lutenist.
Aug 19 Pierre Vernier a French mathematician and instrument inventor. He was inventor and eponym of the vernier scale used in measuring devices
Sep 14 Francisco de Quevedo a Spanish nobleman, politician and writer of the Baroque era. Along with his lifelong rival, Luis de Góngora, Quevedo was one of the most prominent Spanish poets of the age. His style is characterized by what was called conceptismo. This style existed in stark contrast to Góngora's culteranismo
Sep 15 Charles Annibal Fabrot a French jurisconsult.
Oct 12 Hortensio Félix Paravicino a Spanish preacher and poet from the noble house of Pallavicini.
Oct 30 Dirk Hartog a 17th-century Dutch sailor and explorer. Dirk Hartog's expedition was the second European group to land on Australian soil, He was the first to leave behind an artifact to record his visit, the Hartog plate. His name is sometimes alternatively spelled Dirck Hartog or Dierick Hartochsz. Ernest Giles referred to him as Theodoric Hertoge. Born into a seafaring family, at the age of 30 he received his first ship's command, and spent several years engaged in successful trading ventures in the Baltic and Mediterranean seas
Oct 30 Armand-Nompar de Caumont duc de La Force a Marshal of France and peer of France. He was the son of another Marshal of France, Jacques-Nompar de Caumont, duc de La Force and Charlotte de Gontaut, daughter of Marshal Armand de Gontaut, baron de Biron. Like his father, Armand-Nompar was a Protestant
Dec 1 Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc a French astronomer, antiquary and savant, who maintained a wide correspondence with scientists, and was a successful organizer of scientific inquiry. His research included a determination of the difference in longitude of various locations in Europe, around the Mediterranean, and in North Africa
Dec 4 Nabeshima Katsushige a Japanese daimyo of the early Edo period. Born to Nabeshima Naoshige, he became lord of Saga-han