Born in 1581

Jan 4 James Ussher Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland between 1625 and 1656. He was a prolific scholar, who most famously published a chronology that purported to establish the time and date of the creation as the night preceding Sunday, 23 October 4004 BC, according to the proleptic Julian calendar
Jan 30 Christian Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth a member of the House of Hohenzollern and Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach.
Feb 17 Fausto Poli a Roman Catholic prelate and Cardinal.
Mar 16 Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft a Dutch historian, poet and playwright from the period known as the Dutch Golden Age.
Apr 24 Vincent de Paul a priest of the Catholic Church who dedicated himself to serving the poor. He is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. He was canonized in 1737. De Paul was renowned for his compassion, humility, and generosity and is known as the "Great Apostle of Charity"
Jun 26 Peter Claver a Spanish Jesuit priest and missionary born in Verdú who, due to his life and work, became the patron saint of slaves, the Republic of Colombia and ministry to African Americans. During the 40 years of his ministry in Colombia it is estimated he personally baptized around 300,000 people. He is also patron saint for seafarers
Jul 18 Hendrik Brouwer a Dutch explorer, admiral, and colonial administrator both in Japan and the Dutch East Indies.
Oct 9 Claude Gaspard Bachet de Méziriac a French mathematician, linguist, poet and classics scholar born in Bourg-en-Bresse, at that time belonging to Duchy of Savoy.
Oct 21 Domenichino an Italian Baroque painter of the Bolognese School, or Carracci School, of painters.