Died in 1581

May 27 Christopher Báthory a voivode of Transylvania. He succeeded his brother Stephen Báthory. He was the father of Sigismund Báthory and Gryzelda Bathory
May 31 Jan Kostka a Polish noble and a candidate in elections for the new King of Poland in 1572. He was also an advisor to Kings Henry of Valois and Stefan Batory
Jun 2 James Douglas 4th Earl of Morton the last of the four regents of Scotland during the minority of King James He was in some ways the most successful of the four, since he won the civil war that had been dragging on with the supporters of the exiled Mary, Queen of Scots. However, he came to an unfortunate end, executed by means of the Maiden, a primitive guillotine, which he himself was said to have introduced to Scotland
Jul 11 Peder Skram a Danish senator and naval hero, born between 1491 and 1503, at his father's estate at Urup near Horsens in Jutland.
Aug 17 Duchess Sabine of Württemberg a princess of Württemberg by birth and by marriage, the first Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel.
Sep 1 Guru Ram Das the fourth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and was given the title of Sikh Guru on 30 August 1574. He was Guru for seven years. Ram Das was born in Chuna Mandi Lahore, Punjab on 24 September 1534. His father was Hari Das and his mother Anup Devi. His wife was Bibi Bhani, the younger daughter of Guru Amar Das. They had three sons: Prithi Chand, Mahadev and Guru Arjan
Sep 6 Guillaume Postel a French linguist, astronomer, Cabbalist, diplomat, professor, and religious universalist.
Sep 19 Frans Pourbus the Elder a Flemish Renaissance painter.
Sep 29 Andreas Musculus a German Lutheran theologian. The name Musculus is a Latinized form of Meusel
Sep 30 Hubert Languet a French diplomat and reformer. The leading idea of his diplomacy was that of religious and civil liberty for the protection and expansion of Protestantism. He did everything in his power to advance the union of the Protestant churches
Oct 7 Honoré I Lord of Monaco Lord of Monaco from 22 August 1523 to 7 October 1581.
Oct 9 Louis Bertrand (saint) known as the "apostle of the Americas". He is venerated as a saint by the Catholic Church
Oct 23 Michael Neander a German teacher, mathematician, medical academic, and astronomer.
Nov 4 Mathurin Romegas a scion of the aristocratic Gascony family of d'Aux and a member of the Knights of Saint John. He was one of the Order's greatest naval commanders and ended his life disgraced as a Rival Grand Master
Nov 7 Richard Davies (bishop) a Welsh bishop and scholar.
Nov 10 Bayinnaung king of Toungoo Dynasty of Burma from 1550 to 1581. During his 31-year reign, which has been called the "greatest explosion of human energy ever seen in Burma", Bayinnaung assembled the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia, which included much of modern-day Burma, Chinese Shan states, Lan Na, Lan Xang, Manipur and Siam
Nov 19 Tsarevich Ivan Ivanovich of Russia Tsarevich - the heir apparent - of the Tsardom of Russia, being the second son of Ivan the Terrible and Anastasia Romanovna, and elder brother of Feodor.
Dec 1 Alexander Briant an English Jesuit and martyr, executed at Tyburn.
Dec 1 Ralph Sherwin an English Roman Catholic martyr and saint. He was born at Rodsley, Derbyshire, and was educated at Eton College. In 1568, he was nominated by Sir William Petre to one of the eight fellowships which he had founded at Exeter College, Oxford, probably influenced by Sherwin's uncle, John Woodward, who from 1556 to 1566 had been rector of Ingatestone, Essex, where Petre lived. A talented classical scholar, Sherwin graduated Master of Arts on 2 July 1574, and the following year converted to Roman Catholicism and fled abroad to the English College at Douai, where he was ordained a priest by the Bishop of Cambrai on 23 March 1577. On 2 August 1577, he left for Rome, where he stayed at the English College, Rome for nearly three years
Dec 1 Edmund Campion an English Roman Catholic Jesuit priest and martyr. While conducting an underground ministry in officially Anglican England, Campion was arrested by priest hunters. Convicted of high treason, he was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn. Campion was beatified by Pope Leo XIII in 1886 and canonised in 1970 by Pope Paul VI as one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales. His feast is celebrated on 1 December