Born in 1583

Jan 8 Simon Episcopius a Dutch theologian and Remonstrant who played a significant role at the Synod of Dort in 1618. His name is the Latinized form of his Dutch name Simon Bischop
Jan 12 Niccolò Alamanni a Roman antiquarian of Greek origin. He was educated in Rome at the Greek College, founded by Gregory XIII, but was ordained deacon and priest according to the Latin rite
Feb 23 Jean-Baptiste Morin (mathematician) a French mathematician, astrologer, and astronomer.
Mar 3 Edward Herbert 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury an Anglo-Welsh soldier, diplomat, historian, poet and religious philosopher of the Kingdom of England.
Mar 13 Martín Enríquez de Almanza the fourth viceroy of New Spain, who ruled from November 5, 1568 until October 3, 1580. He was subsequently viceroy of Peru, from September 23, 1581 until his death in 1583. His birthplace and origins are uncertain. Some historians speculate on possible Sephardic origins of this viceroy, but that has not been confirmed
Apr 4 Franciscus Quaresmius an Italian writer and Orientalist.
Apr 10 Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa the fourth Spanish governor and captain-general of the Philippines from April 1580 until his death in 1583. He was succeeded by his nephew, Diego Ronquillo
Apr 10 Hugo Grotius a jurist in the Dutch Republic. With Francisco de Vitoria and Alberico Gentili he laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. He was also a philosopher, theologian, Christian apologist, playwright, historiographer, poet, statesman and diplomat
Jun 16 Axel Oxenstierna a Swedish statesman. He became a member of the Swedish Privy Council in 1609 and served as Lord High Chancellor of Sweden from 1612 until his death. He was a confidant of first Gustavus Adolphus and then Queen Christina
Jun 20 Jacob De la Gardie a statesman and a soldier of the Swedish Empire.
Jul 9 John Prince of Schleswig-Holstein the youngest son of Frederick II of Denmark and Norway and Sophia of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. He went to Russia in 1602 as the bridegroom of Boris Godunov's daughter Ksenia , but fell ill and died before the marriage could take place
Aug 19 Daišan an influential Manchu prince and statesman of the Qing Dynasty.
Aug 21 Eleanor of Prussia a princess of the Duchy of Prussia by birth and Electress of Brandenburg by marriage.
Aug 21 Denis Pétau a French Jesuit theologian.
Sep 23 Christian II Elector of Saxony Elector of Saxony from 1591 to 1611.
Sep 24 Albrecht von Wallenstein a Bohemian military leader and politician, who offered his services, and an army of 30,000 to 100,000 men during the Thirty Years' War , to the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand He became the supreme commander of the armies of the Habsburg Monarchy and a major figure of the Thirty Years' War.
Oct 18 Takeda Nobuyoshi a Japanese daimyo of the early Edo period. Born Tokugawa Fukumatsumaru, he was one of Tokugawa Ieyasu's sons. His mother is believed to have been Otoma, the daughter of Takeda clan retainer Akiyama Torayasu. As Ieyasu took pity on the destroyed Takeda clan, he changed his son's name to Takeda Manchiyomaru and then Takeda Shichirō Nobuyoshi. He entrusted the boy to the care of the Anayama of Kai Province
Oct 22 Laurens Reael an employee of the Dutch East India Company , Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1616 to 1619 and an admiral of the Dutch navy from 1625 to 1627.
Nov 10 Anthony Günther Count of Oldenburg an Imperial Count and a member of the House of Oldenburg. He was the ruling count of Oldenburg from 1603 until his death, and of Delmenhorst from 1647 until his death. He was the son of John VII and Elisabeth of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg
Nov 17 Archduke Maximilian Ernest of Austria a German prince member of the House of Habsburg and by birth Archduke of Austria.
Nov 24 Juan Martínez de Jáuregui y Aguilar Spanish poet, scholar and painter in the Siglo de Oro.
Dec 25 Orlando Gibbons an English composer, virginalist and organist of the late Tudor and early Jacobean periods. He was a leading composer in the England of his day