Died in 1583

Jan 22 Antoinette de Bourbon a French noblewoman of the House of Bourbon. She was the wife of Claude de Lorraine, Duke of Guise. Through her eldest daughter, Mary of Guise, Queen consort of King James V of Scotland, she was the maternal grandmother of Mary, Queen of Scots
Feb 22 João I Duke of Braganza the 6th Duke of Braganza and 1st Duke of Barcelos, among other titles. He is known pushing the claims of his wife, Infanta Catherine of Guimarães, to the throne of Portugal
Mar 4 Bernard Gilpin an Oxford theologian and then an influential clergyman in the emerging Church of England spanning the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Jane, Mary and Elizabeth He was known as the 'Apostle of the North', for his work in the wilds of northern England.
Mar 28 Magnus Duke of Holstein a Prince of Denmark and a member of the House of Oldenburg. As a vassal of Ivan IV of Russia, he was the titular King of Livonia from 1570 to 1578
May 26 Esmé Stewart 1st Duke of Lennox the son of John Stewart, 5th Lord of Aubigny who was the younger brother of Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox. Sir James Melville described him as "of nature, upright, just, and gentle"
Jun 6 Nakagawa Kiyohide a daimyo in Azuchi-Momoyama period. His childhood name was Nakagawa Toranosuke. His common name was Nakagawa Sebe. His father was Nakagawa Shigekiyo. Nakagawa Hidemasa and Nakagawa Hidenari were his sons. Furuta Oribe's wife was Kiyohide's young sister
Jun 9 Thomas Radclyffe 3rd Earl of Sussex Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland during the Tudor period of English history, and a leading courtier during the reign of Elizabeth I.
Jun 14 Shibata Katsuie a Japanese military commander during the Sengoku Period who served Oda Nobunaga.
Jul 6 Edmund Grindal an English Protestant leader who successively held the posts of Bishop of London, Archbishop of York and Archbishop of Canterbury during the reign of Elizabeth I of England.
Jul 8 Fernão Mendes Pinto a Portuguese explorer and writer. His voyages are recorded in Pilgrimage , his autobiographical memoir. The historical accuracy of the work is debatable due to the many events which seem far fetched or at least exaggerated. Some aspects of the work can be verified, particularly through Pinto's service to the Portuguese Crown and by his association with Jesuit missionaries
Sep 9 Humphrey Gilbert a half-brother of Sir Walter Raleigh and cousin of Sir Richard Grenville. Adventurer, explorer, member of parliament, and soldier, he served during the reign of Queen Elizabeth and was a pioneer of the English colonial empire in North America and the Plantations of Ireland
Sep 16 Catherine Jagiellon the wife of John III of Sweden. As such, she was Duchess of Finland , Queen of Sweden and Grand Princess of Finland. Catherine had significant influence over state affairs during the reign of her husband, and negotiated with the pope to introduce a counter reformation in Sweden
Oct 22 Louis VI Elector Palatine an Elector from the Palatinate-Simmern branch of the house of Wittelsbach. He was the first-born son of Frederick III, Elector Palatine and Marie of Brandenburg-Kulmbach
Oct 30 Pirro Ligorio an Italian architect, painter, antiquarian and garden designer.
Nov 24 René de Birague an Italian patrician who became a French cardinal and chancellor.
Dec 7 Nurbanu Sultan the favourite consort and later wife of Sultan Selim II of the Ottoman Empire, mother of Sultan Murad III, and de facto co-ruler as the Valide Sultan for nine years from 1574 until 1583. She was either a Venetian of noble birth or a Spanish Jew. Her birth name may have been Rachel Olivia de Nasi. or Cecilia Venier-Baffo
Dec 11 Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo 4th Duke of Alba a commander in the Spanish army during the Eighty Years' War.
Dec 16 Ivan Fyodorov (printer) one of the fathers of Eastern Slavonic printing , he was the first printer in Russia and Ukraine, he was also a skilled cannon maker and the inventor of a multibarreled mortar.
Dec 31 Thomas Erastus a Swiss physician and theologian best known for a posthumously published work in which he argued that the sins of Christians should be punished by the state, and not by the church withholding the sacraments. A generalization of this idea, that the state is supreme in church matters, is known somewhat misleadingly as Erastianism