Born in 1585

Jan 6 Claude Favre de Vaugelas a Savoyard grammarian and man of letters. Although a lifelong courtier, Claude Favre was widely known by the name of one of the landed estates he owned as seigneur of Vaugelas and baron of Peroges
Jan 8 Henriette Catherine de Joyeuse the daughter of Henri de Joyeuse and Catherine de Nogaret. She married her first husband, Henri de Bourbon, Duke of Montpensier, on 15 May 1597 and her second husband, Charles, Duke of Guise, on 6 January 1611
Jan 27 Hendrick Avercamp a Dutch painter.
Jan 28 Domenico II Contarini the 104th Doge of Venice, reigning from his election on October 16, 1659 until his death.
Feb 2 Hamnet Shakespeare the only son of William Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway, and the fraternal twin of Judith Shakespeare. He died at age 11. Some Shakespearean scholars speculate on the relationship between Hamnet and his father's later play Hamlet, as well as on possible connections between Hamnet's death and the writing of King John, Romeo and Juliet, Julius Caesar, and Twelfth Night
Feb 12 Caspar Bartholin the Elder born at Malmø, Denmark and was a polymath, finally accepting a professorship in medicine at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1613. He later taught theology at the same university
Mar 5 Frederick I Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg the first Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg and founder of the eponymous family line.
Mar 5 John George I Elector of Saxony Elector of Saxony from 1611 to 1656.
Mar 6 Francesco Cornaro (Doge) the 101st Doge of Venice. His reign as Doge was the shortest of any Doge. He was elected on May 17, 1656, and died only a few weeks later, on June 5, 1656
Mar 16 Gerbrand Adriaenszoon Bredero a Dutch poet and playwright in the period known as the Dutch Golden Age.
Mar 22 Krzysztof Radziwiłł a Polish-Lithuanian noble , and a notable magnate, politician and military commander of his epoch. Sometimes referred to as Krzysztof Radziwiłł II, to distinguish him from his father, Krzysztof Mikołaj 'Piorun' Radziwłł
May 1 Sophia Olelkovich Radziwill the last descendant of the family Olelkovich-Slutsk who were descended from Prince Algirdas. She was canonized by the Orthodox Church in 1983. The church of Sophia of Slutsk in Minsk is named after her
Jun 11 Evert Horn a Swedish soldier. He was born in Haapsalu. He was appointed Governor of Narva in 1613, and Field Marshal in 1614. He was killed by a bullet during the early days of the Swedish siege of Pskov
Jun 24 Johannes Lippius a German Protestant theologian, philosopher, composer, and music theorist. He coined the term "harmonic triad" in his "Synopsis of New Music"
Jun 28 Sisto Badalocchio an Italian painter and engraver of the Bolognese School.
Jul 7 Thomas Howard 21st Earl of Arundel a prominent English courtier during the reigns of King James I and King Charles I, but he made his name as a Grand Tourist and art collector rather than as a politician. When he died he possessed 700 paintings, along with large collections of sculpture, books, prints, drawings, and antique jewellery. Most of his collection of marble carvings, known as the Arundel marbles, was eventually left to the University of Oxford
Sep 9 Cardinal Richelieu a French clergyman, noble and statesman. He was consecrated as a bishop in 1607 and was appointed Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in 1616. Richelieu soon rose in both the Catholic Church and the French government, becoming a Cardinal in 1622, and King Louis XIII's chief minister in 1624. He remained in office until his death in 1642; he was succeeded by Cardinal Mazarin, whose career he had fostered
Oct 4 Anna of Tyrol the wife of Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor. By this marriage she was Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Queen of Bohemia and Queen of Hungary. Her parents were Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria and Anne Juliana Gonzaga
Oct 11 Johann Heermann a German poet and hymn-writer. He is commemorated in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church on 26 October with Philipp Nicolai and Paul Gerhardt
Oct 18 Heinrich Schütz a German composer and organist, generally regarded as the most important German composer before Johann Sebastian Bach and often considered to be one of the most important composers of the 17th century. He wrote what is traditionally considered to be the first German opera, Dafne, performed at Torgau in 1627, the music of which has since been lost. He is commemorated as a musician in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church on 28 July with Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel
Oct 28 Cornelius Jansen Catholic bishop of Ypres and the father of a theological movement known as Jansenism.
Nov 1 Jan Brożek a Polish polymath: a mathematician, astronomer, physician, poet, writer, musician and rector of the Kraków Academy.
Dec 4 John Cotton (minister) a clergyman in England and the American colonies, and by most accounts was the preeminent minister and theologian of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Following five years of study at Trinity College, Cambridge, and another nine years at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, he had already built a reputation as a scholar and outstanding preacher when he accepted the position of minister at Saint Botolph's Church in Boston, Lincolnshire in 1612. As a Puritan he wanted to do away with the ceremony and vestments associated with the established Anglican Church, and preach in a simpler, more consensual manner. Though he felt the English church needed significant reforms, he nevertheless was adamant about not separating from it; his preference was to change it from within. While many ministers were removed from their pulpits for their puritan practices, Cotton thrived at Botolph's for nearly 20 years because of supportive aldermen, lenient bishops, and his very conciliatory and gentle demeanor. By 1632, however, the Anglican church had greatly increased its pressure on the non-conforming clergy, and Cotton was forced to go into hiding. The following year he and his wife boarded a ship for New England
Dec 13 William Drummond of Hawthornden a Scottish poet.
Dec 31 Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba (1585–1645) a Spanish military leader during the Eighty Years' War, Thirty Years' War and the War of the Mantuan Succession.