Died in 1586

Jan 9 Paul Wittich a German mathematician and astronomer whose Capellan geoheliocentric model, in which the inner planets Mercury and Venus orbit the sun but the outer planets Mars, Jupiter and Saturn orbit the Earth, may have directly inspired Tycho Brahe's more radically heliocentric geoheliocentric model in which all the 5 known primary planets orbited the Sun, which in turn orbited the stationary Earth.
Jan 18 Margaret of Parma Governor of the Netherlands from 1559 to 1567 and from 1578 to 1582. She was the illegitimate daughter of the then 22-year-old Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Johanna Maria van der Gheynst. She was a Duchess of Florence and a Duchess of Parma and Piacenza by marriage
Jan 25 Lucas Cranach the Younger a German Renaissance artist, known for his woodcuts and paintings.
Jan 29 Hashiba Hidekatsu a Japanese samurai who was the fourth son of the famed feudal warlord Oda Nobunaga and was adopted by Toyotomi Hideyoshi at a young age. His original name was Oda Hidekatsu
Feb 11 Augustus Elector of Saxony Elector of Saxony from 1553 to 1586.
Mar 25 Margaret Clitherow an English saint and martyr of the Roman Catholic Church. She is sometimes called "the Pearl of York"
Mar 29 Robert Stewart 1st Earl of March a Scottish nobleman of the family of Stewart of Darnley.
Apr 8 Martin Chemnitz an eminent second-generation Lutheran theologian, reformer, churchman, and confessor. In the Lutheran tradition he is known as Alter Martinus, the "Second Martin": Si Martinus non fuisset, Martinus vix stetisset goes a common saying concerning him. He is commemorated as a pastor and confessor in the Lutheran Service Book of the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod on November 9
Apr 23 Nikita Romanovich a Muscovite Boyar in 1563 whose grandson Mikhail Feodorovich founded the Romanov dynasty of Russian tsars.
May 5 Henry Sidney the eldest son of Sir William Sidney of Penshurst, a prominent politician and courtier during the reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI, from both of whom he received extensive grants of land, including the manor of Penshurst in Kent, which became the principal residence of the family.
May 9 Luis de Morales a Spanish painter born in Badajoz, Extremadura. Known as "El Divino", most of his work was of religious subjects, including many representations of the Madonna and Child and the Passion
May 29 Adam Lonicer a German botanist, noted for his 1557 revised version of Eucharius Rösslin’s herbal.
Jun 28 Primož Trubar the Protestant reformer, most known as the author of the first Slovene language printed book, the founder and the first superintendent of the Protestant Church of the Slovene Lands, notable for consolidating the Slovene language. Trubar is the key figure of Slovenian cultural history and in many aspects a major historical personality
Aug 1 Adolf Duke of Holstein-Gottorp the first Duke of Holstein-Gottorp from the line of Holstein-Gottorp of the House of Oldenburg.
Aug 15 Elizabeth of Denmark Duchess of Mecklenburg Danish princess and a Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and later of Mecklenburg-Güstrow through marriage. She was the elder daughter of King Frederick I of Denmark and his second spouse Sophie of Pomerania
Sep 18 Ottavio Farnese Duke of Parma reigned as Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1547 and Duke of Castro from 1545 until his death.
Sep 20 Anthony Babington convicted of plotting the assassination of Elizabeth I of England and conspiring with the imprisoned Mary, Queen of Scots. The "Babington Plot" and Mary's involvement in it were the basis of the treason charges against her which led to her execution
Sep 20 Chidiock Tichborne an English conspirator and poet.
Sep 21 Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle a Burgundian statesman, made a cardinal, who followed his father as a leading minister of the Spanish Habsburgs, and was one of the most influential European politicians during the time which immediately followed the appearance of Protestantism in Europe; "the dominating Imperial statesman of the whole century". He was also a notable art collector, the "greatest private collector of his time, the friend and patron of Titian and Leoni and many other artists"
Oct 17 Philip Sidney remembered as one of the most prominent figures of the Elizabethan age. His works include Astrophel and Stella, The Defence of Poesy , and The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia
Dec 6 Joachim Ernest Prince of Anhalt a German prince of the House of Ascania, ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Zerbst from 1551, and from 1570 sole ruler of all the Anhalt lands.
Dec 12 Stephen Báthory Voivode of Transylvania , Prince of Transylvania , from 1576 Queen Anna Jagiellon's husband and jure uxoris King of Poland.