Born in 1588

Jan 20 Francesco Gessi an Italian painter of the Baroque period, active mainly in Bologna.
Mar 21 Egon VIII of Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg Imperial Count of Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg and Bavarian Field-marshal, and an important military leader in the Thirty Years' War.
Mar 27 Celestyn Myślenta a Polish Lutheran theologian and rector of the University of Königsberg. Celestyn was the son of Mateusz Myślenta and Eufroza née Wiercinska. His father was once employed by Duke Radziwill and belonged to the Polish nobility. As a stipendiary of the duke of Prussia he studied at University Königsberg, then became Lutheran pastor in Kuty from 1581-1599
Mar 29 Margherita Aldobrandini a Duchess consort of Parma. She was the regent of Parma 1626-1628
Apr 4 Padovanino an Italian painter of the late-Mannerist and early-Baroque Venetian school, best known for having mentored Pietro Liberi, Giulio Carpioni, and Bartolommeo Scaligero. He was the son of Dario Varotari the Elder and the brother of Chiara Varotari, who accompanied him on his travels and assisted with his work
Apr 5 Thomas Hobbes an English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy. His 1651 book Leviathan established social contract theory, the foundation of most later Western political philosophy
Apr 15 Claudius Salmasius the Latin name of Claude Saumaise , a French classical scholar.
May 13 Ole Worm a Danish physician and antiquary.
May 28 Pierre Séguier a French statesman, chancellor of France from 1635. He is known for his appearance in The Three Musketeers
Jun 9 Johann Andreas Herbst a German composer and music theorist of the early Baroque era. He was a contemporary of Michael Praetorius and Heinrich Schütz, and like them, assisted in importing the grand Venetian style and the other features of the early Baroque into Protestant Germany
Jun 11 George Wither an English poet, pamphleteer, and satirist. He was a prolific writer who adopted a deliberate plainness of style; he was several times imprisoned. V. Wedgwood wrote "every so often in the barren acres of his verse is a stretch enlivened by real wit and observation, or fired with a sudden intensity of feeling"
Aug 25 Elizabeth Poole an English settler in Plymouth Colony who founded the town of Taunton, Massachusetts. She was the first woman known to have founded a town in the Americas. Poole was a well-born woman from Shute in East Devon, near Axminster. She was the daughter of Sir William Pole, who was knighted by James I in 1601, and Mary Peryam, the daughter of Sir William Peryam, Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer. Until 2009, her family's descendants, the Pole-Carews, lived in the Devonshire house she was born in, Shute Barton a National Trust property which is open to the public on four weekends during the year
Sep 1 Henri Prince of Condé (1588–1646) a Prince du Sang.
Sep 8 Marin Mersenne a French theologian, philosopher, mathematician and music theorist, often referred to as the "father of acoustics". Mersenne was "the center of the world of science and mathematics during the first half of the 1600s."
Sep 10 Nicholas Lanier an English composer, singer, lutenist and painter.
Dec 10 Johann von Aldringen born at Thionville in Lorraine. After travelling as page to a nobleman in France, Italy and the Netherlands, he went to the University of Paris
Dec 10 Isaac Beeckman a Dutch philosopher and scientist, who, through his studies and contact with leading natural philosophers, may have "virtually given birth to modern atomism".
Dec 15 Adolf Frederick I Duke of Mecklenburg the reigning Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin from his father's death in 1592 until 1628 and again from 1631 to 1658. Between 1634 and 1648 Adolf Frederick also ruled the Prince-Bishopric of Schwerin as its administrator
Dec 24 Constance of Austria queen of Poland as the second wife of King Sigismund III Vasa and the mother of King John II Casimir.