Died in 1589

Jan 5 Catherine de' Medici an Italian noblewoman who was Queen of France from 1547 until 1559, as the wife of King Henry As the mother of three sons who became kings of France during her lifetime she had extensive, if at times varying, influence in the political life of France. For a time she ruled France as its regent
Mar 2 Alessandro Farnese (cardinal) the grandson of Pope Paul III , and the son of Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma, who was murdered in 1547. He should not be confused with his nephew Alessandro Farnese, Governor of the Spanish Netherlands, grandson of Emperor Charles V and great-grandson of Pope Paul III
Mar 3 Johannes Sturm a German educator, influential in the design of the Gymnasium system of secondary education.
Mar 23 Marcin Kromer Prince-Bishop of Warmia , a Polish cartographer, diplomat and historian in the Kingdom of Poland and later in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He was a personal secretary to two Kings of Poland, Sigismund I the Old and Sigismund II Augustus
May 3 Julius Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg prince of Wolfenbüttel from 1568 until his death.
May 9 Paulo Dias de Novais a Portuguese colonizer of Africa in the 16th century and the first Captain-Governor of Portuguese Angola. He was the grandson of the explorer Bartolomeu Dias
Jul 1 Lady Saigō the first consort and trusted confidante of Tokugawa Ieyasu, the samurai lord who unified Japan at the end of the sixteenth century and then ruled as Shogun. She was also the mother of the second Tokugawa shogun, Tokugawa Hidetada
Jul 29 Maria of the Palatinate-Simmern a German Princess and a Swedish Princess and Duchess of Södermanland by marriage, the first spouse of the future King Charles IX of Sweden. She died before he became King, and was therefore never Queen
Aug 1 Jacques Clément a French conspirator and the killer of the French king Henry III.
Aug 2 Henry III of France a monarch of the House of Valois who was elected the monarch of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1573 to 1575 and ruled as King of France from 1574 until his death. He was the last French monarch of the Valois dynasty
Sep 16 Michael Baius a Belgian theologian. He came up with the school of thought Baianism
Sep 19 Jean-Antoine de Baïf a French poet and member of the Pléiade.
Oct 15 Jacopo Zabarella an Italian Aristotelian philosopher and logician.