Died in 1590

Jan 7 Jakob Andreae a significant German Lutheran theologian, involved in the drafting of major documents.
Jan 20 Giambattista Benedetti an Italian mathematician from Venice who was also interested in physics, mechanics, the construction of sundials, and the science of music.
Feb 1 Lawrence Humphrey an English theologian, who was President of Magdalen College, Oxford, and Dean successively of Gloucester and Winchester.
Feb 2 Catherine of Ricci de' Ricci, O.S.D. was an Italian Dominican Tertiary Religious Sister, who is held to have been a mystic, and is honored as a saint by the Catholic Church
Feb 4 Gioseffo Zarlino an Italian music theorist and composer of the Renaissance. He was possibly the most famous music theorist between Aristoxenus and Rameau, and made a large contribution to the theory of counterpoint as well as to musical tuning
Feb 5 Bernardino de Sahagún a Franciscan friar, missionary priest and pioneering ethnographer who participated in the Catholic evangelization of colonial New Spain. Born in Sahagún, Spain, in 1499, he journeyed to New Spain in 1529, and spent more than 50 years in the study of Aztec beliefs, culture and history. Though he dedicated himself primarily to the missionary task, his extraordinary work documenting indigenous worldview and culture has earned him the title “the first anthropologist." He also contributed to the description of the Aztec language Nahuatl, into which he translated the Psalms, the Gospels and a basic manual of religious education
Feb 12 François Hotman a French Protestant lawyer and writer, associated with the legal humanists and with the monarchomaques, who struggled against absolute monarchy. His first name is often written 'Francis' in English. His surname is Latinized by himself as Hotomanus, by others as Hotomannus and Hottomannus. He has been called "one of the first modern revolutionaries"
Apr 6 Francis Walsingham popularly remembered as her "spymaster".
May 9 Charles de Bourbon (cardinal) a French cardinal. The Catholic League considered him the rightful King of France after the death of Henry III of France in 1589
May 30 Camilla Martelli the first lover and then second wife of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo I de' Medici. She was the mother of Virginia de' Medici, future Duchess of Modena
Jul 10 Charles II Archduke of Austria an Archduke of Austria and ruler of Inner Austria from 1564. He was a member of the House of Habsburg
Aug 10 Hōjō Ujimasa the fourth head of the late Hōjō clan, and daimyo of Odawara.
Aug 27 Pope Sixtus V Pope from 24 April 1585 to his death in 1590. To date, he is the last pontiff to take the pontifical name of "Sixtus" upon his election
Sep 20 Lodovico Agostini an Italian composer, singer, priest, and scholar of the late Renaissance. He was a close associate of the Ferrara Estense court, and one of the most skilled representatives of the progressive secular style which developed there at the end of the 16th century
Sep 20 Robert Garnier a French tragic poet. He published his first work while still a law-student at Toulouse, where he won a prize in the Académie des Jeux Floraux. It was a collection of lyrical pieces, now lost, entitled Plaintes amoureuses de Robert Garnier. After some legal practice at the Parisian bar, he became conseiller du roi au siege présidial and sénéchaussé of Maine, his native district, and later lieutenant-général criminel. His friend Lacroix du Maine says that he enjoyed a great reputation as an orator. He was a distinguished magistrate, of considerable weight in his native province, who gave his leisure to literature, and whose merits as a poet were fully recognized by his own generation
Sep 27 Pope Urban VII Pope from 15 to 27 September 1590. His thirteen-day papacy was the shortest in history
Oct 4 Jacques Cujas a French legal expert. He was prominent among the legal humanists or mos gallicus school, which sought to abandon the work of the medieval Commentators and concentrate on ascertaining the correct text and social context of the original works of Roman law
Oct 12 Kanō Eitoku a Japanese painter who lived during the Azuchi–Momoyama period of Japanese history and one of the most prominent patriarchs of the Kanō school of Japanese painting.
Oct 16 Archduchess Anna of Austria the daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and his wife Anna of Bohemia and Hungary.
Oct 18 Philip Duke of Holstein-Gottorp the second son of Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp and his wife, Christine of Hesse.
Oct 29 Dirck Volckertszoon Coornhert a Dutch writer, philosopher, translator, politician and theologian. Coornhert is often considered the Father of Dutch Renaissance scholarship
Nov 18 George Talbot 6th Earl of Shrewsbury an English magnate and military commander.
Nov 23 André Thévet a French Franciscan priest, explorer, cosmographer and writer who travelled to Brazil in the 16th century. He described the country, its aboriginal inhabitants and the historical episodes involved in the France Antarctique, a French settlement in Rio de Janeiro, in his book Singularities of France Antarctique
Nov 29 Philipp Nicodemus Frischlin parish minister.
Dec 10 Christina of Denmark a Danish princess who became Duchess-consort of Milan, then Duchess-consort of Lorraine. She was also the Regent of Lorraine in the years 1545–1552 during the minority of her son and a claimant to the thrones of Denmark, Norway and Sweden
Dec 20 Ambroise Paré a French barber surgeon who served in that role for kings Henry II, Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III. He is considered one of the fathers of surgery and modern forensic pathology and a pioneer in surgical techniques and battlefield medicine, especially in the treatment of wounds. He was also an anatomist and invented several surgical instruments