Born in 1591

Jan 3 Valentin de Boulogne a French painter in the tenebrist style.
Jan 11 Robert Devereux 3rd Earl of Essex an English Parliamentarian and soldier during the first half of the seventeenth century. With the start of the English Civil War in 1642 he became the first Captain-General and Chief Commander of the Parliamentarian army, also known as the Roundheads. However, he was unable and unwilling to score a decisive blow against the Royalist army of King Charles He was eventually overshadowed by the ascendancy of Oliver Cromwell and Thomas Fairfax and resigned his commission in 1646
Jan 12 Jusepe de Ribera a Spanish Tenebrist painter and printmaker, better known as Jusepe de Ribera or Giuseppe Ribera. He also was called Lo Spagnoletto by his contemporaries and early writers. Ribera was a leading painter of the Spanish school, although his mature work was all done in Italy
Feb 8 Guercino an Italian Baroque painter and draftsman from the region of Emilia, and active in Rome and Bologna. The vigorous naturalism of his early manner is in contrast to the classical equilibrium of his later works. His many drawings are noted for their luminosity and lively style
Feb 25 Friedrich Spee a German Jesuit and poet, most noted as an opponent of trials for witchcraft. Spee was the first person in his time who spoke strongly and with arguments against torture in general. He may be considered the first who ever gave good arguments why torture is not a way of obtaining truth from someone undergoing painful questioning
Mar 3 Lucas de Wael a Flemish painter, engraver and merchant. He was born in Antwerp and worked for some time in Genoa in Italy before returning to Antwerp, where he died
Mar 11 Isabella of Savoy a daughter of Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy and Catherine Michelle of Spain. Her maternal grandparents where Philip II of Spain and Elisabeth of Valois, her paternal grandparents were Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy and Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry. She was the Hereditary Princess of Modena, dying before her husband succeeded to the Duchy of Modena in 1628
Mar 15 Alexandre de Rhodes a French Jesuit missionary and lexicographer who had a lasting impact on Christianity in Vietnam. He wrote the Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum, the first trilingual Vietnamese-Portuguese-Latin dictionary published in Rome in 1651
Mar 19 Dirck Hals a Dutch painter of festivals and ballroom scenes. He was influenced by his elder brother Frans Hals
Apr 5 Frederick Ulrich Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg prince of Wolfenbüttel from 1613 until his death.
May 26 Olimpia Maidalchini the sister-in-law of Pope Innocent She rose to prominence as one of the most powerful women in Rome of her era and influenced foreign and domestic papal policy as well as several papal conclaves.
Jun 16 Joseph Solomon Delmedigo a rabbi, author, physician, mathematician, and music theorist.
Jul 1 William Douglas 9th Earl of Angus a Scottish nobleman and zealous supporter of Mary, Queen of Scots.
Jul 20 Anne Hutchinson a Puritan spiritual adviser, mother of 15, and important participant in the Antinomian Controversy that shook the infant Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638. Her strong religious convictions were at odds with the established Puritan clergy in the Boston area, and her popularity and charisma helped create a theological schism that threatened to destroy the Puritans' religious experiment in New England. She was eventually tried and convicted, then banished from the colony with many of her supporters
Aug 12 Louise de Marillac the co-founder, with Saint Vincent de Paul, of the Daughters of Charity. She is venerated as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church
Aug 24 Robert Herrick (poet) a 17th-century English lyric poet and cleric. He is best known for his book of poems, Hesperides. This includes the carpe diem poem To the Virgins, To Make Much of Time, with the first line Gather ye rosebuds while ye may
Sep 8 Marie Angélique Arnauld Abbess of the Abbey of Port-Royal, which under her abbacy became a center of Jansenism.
Oct 2 Margherita Gonzaga Duchess of Lorraine Duchess of Lorraine from 1606 until her husband's death in 1624.
Oct 6 Settimia Caccini an Italian composer and singer. She was the youngest daughter of composer Giulio Caccini and singer Lucia Gagnolanti. Her mother died when she was very young. She was the sister of Francesca Caccini, also a composer and singer, and Pompeo Caccini, a singer. Due to the level of musical talent in her family, Settimia started her musical education at an early age, going on to be a successful singer and composer in her own right
Dec 4 Zygmunt Karol Radziwiłł a Polish-Lithuanian noble, komorzy stolowicki from 1614, poznanski from 1625, krajczy of the queen from 1617, krajczy or Lithuania from 1633, podczaszy of Lithuania from 1638, voivode of Nowogródek from 1642, member of Knights Hospitaller , patron of Knight Hospitallers centers in Poznań and Stwołowce.