Died in 1591

Jan 13 Antonio Carafa an Italian Roman Catholic Cardinal.
Feb 6 Anna Sophia of Prussia a German noblewoman. She was a duchess in Prussia by birth and by marriage Duchess of Mecklenburg
Feb 26 Vespasiano I Gonzaga an Italian nobleman, diplomat, writer, military engineer and condottiero. He is remembered as a patron of the arts and the founder of Sabbioneta, a town in Lombardy designed according to the Renaissance principles of the "ideal city"
Mar 17 Jost Amman a Swiss artist, celebrated chiefly for his woodcuts, done mainly for book illustrations.
Apr 9 Emilie of Saxony the third wife of Margrave George the Pious of Brandenburg-Ansbach. Since his two earlier wives died before his accession, she was the only one to enjoy the title Margravine
Apr 21 Sen no Rikyū considered the historical figure with the most profound influence on chanoyu, the Japanese "Way of Tea", particularly the tradition of wabi-cha. He was also the first to emphasize several key aspects of the ceremony, including rustic simplicity, directness of approach and honesty of self. Originating from the Sengoku period and the Azuchi–Momoyama period, these aspects of the tea ceremony persist. Rikyū is known by many names; for convenience this article will refer to him as Rikyū throughout
May 15 Dmitry of Uglich a Russian tsarevich famously impersonated by a series of pretenders after the death of his father Ivan the Terrible.
Jun 21 Aloysius Gonzaga an Italian aristocrat who became a member of the Society of Jesus. While still a student at the Roman College, he died as a result of caring for the victims of an epidemic. He was beatified in 1605, and canonized in 1726
Jul 2 Vincenzo Galilei an Italian lutenist, composer, and music theorist, and the father of the famous astronomer and physicist Galileo Galilei and of the lute virtuoso and composer Michelagnolo Galilei. He was a seminal figure in the musical life of the late Renaissance, and contributed significantly to the musical revolution which demarcates the beginning of the Baroque era
Aug 14 François de la Noue one of the Huguenot captains of the 16th century. He was born near Nantes in 1531, of an ancient Breton family
Aug 23 Luis de León Ponce de León, O.E.S.A. was a Spanish lyric poet, Augustinian friar, theologian and academic, active during the Spanish Golden Age
Sep 10 Richard Grenville an English sailor who as captain of the Revenge, died at the Battle of Flores , fighting heroically against overwhelming odds, and refusing to surrender his ship to the far more numerous Spanish. He was also a soldier, an Armed Merchant Fleet Owner, Privateer, Colonizer, and explorer. He took part in the early English attempts to settle the New World, and also participated in the fight against the Spanish Armada. His non military offices included Member of Parliament for Cornwall, High Sheriff of County Cork from 1569–70 and Sheriff of Cornwall in 1576–77. He was the grandfather of Sir Bevil Grenville of English Civil War fame, whose son was John Granville, 1st Earl of Bath
Sep 25 Christian I Elector of Saxony Elector of Saxony from 1586 to 1591. He belonged to the Albertine line of the House of Wettin
Oct 16 Pope Gregory XIV Pope from 5 December 1590 to his death in 1591.
Nov 15 Barnabé Brisson a French jurist and politician.
Nov 20 Christopher Hatton an English politician, Lord Chancellor of England and a favourite of Elizabeth I of England.
Dec 10 Swithun Wells an English Roman Catholic martyr who was executed during the reign of Elizabeth I.
Dec 10 Polydore Plasden Saint Polydore Plasden, one of the Catholic Forty Martyrs of England and Wales. A native of London, he studied for the priesthood at Rheims and Rome and was ordained in 1586 before being sent back to England soon after
Dec 10 Edmund Gennings an English martyr, who was executed during the English Reformation for being a Catholic priest. He came from Lichfield, Staffordshire. His name is sometimes spelled Jennings
Dec 14 John of the Cross Saint John of the Cross, O.C.D. was a major figure of the Counter-Reformation, a Spanish mystic, a Roman Catholic saint, a Carmelite friar and a priest who was born at Fontiveros, Old Castile
Dec 18 Marigje Arriens an alleged Dutch witch and one of the more known victims of the witch hunt in the Netherlands.
Dec 19 Hōjō Ujinao a Japanese daimyo of the late Sengoku period, and the final head of the Late Hōjō clan. An important figure in the history of Azuchi-Momoyama politics, he lost his entire domain following the siege in 1590. Despite this, he survived, and his family carried on as small daimyo in the Edo period
Dec 30 Pope Innocent IX Pope from 29 October to 30 December 1591. Prior to his short papacy, he had been a Canon Lawyer, diplomat, and chief administrator during the reign of Pope Gregory XIV