Born in 1592

Jan 5 Shah Jahan the fifth Mughal Emperor of India. He is also known as Shah Jahan He ruled from 1628 until 1658
Jan 22 Pierre Gassendi a French philosopher, priest, scientist, astronomer, and mathematician. While he held a church position in south-east France, he also spent much time in Paris, where he was a leader of a group of free-thinking intellectuals. He was also an active observational scientist, publishing the first data on the transit of Mercury in 1631. The lunar crater Gassendi is named after him
Jan 22 Philippe Alegambe a Belgian Jesuit priest and bibliographer.
Feb 16 Matsudaira Tadateru a daimyo during the Edo period of Japan. He was the sixth son of Tokugawa Ieyasu. He was born in Edo Castle during the year of the dragon , and as a child his name was Tatsuchiyo. His mother was Lady Chaa , a concubine of Ieyasu. Ieyasu sent the boy to live with a vassal, Minagawa Hiroteru, daimyo of the Minagawa Domain in Shimotsuke Province
Mar 28 John Amos Comenius a Czech teacher, educator and writer. He served as the last bishop of Unity of the Brethren and became a religious refugee and one of the earliest champions of universal education, a concept eventually set forth in his book Didactica Magna. He is considered the father of modern education. Comenius was the innovator who first introduced pictorial textbooks, written in native language instead of Latin, applied effective teaching based on the natural gradual growth from simple to more comprehensive concepts, supported lifelong learning and development of logical thinking by moving from dull memorization, presented and supported the idea of equal opportunity for impoverished children, opened doors to education for women, made instruction universal and practical. He lived and worked in many different countries in Europe, including Sweden, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Transylvania, the Holy Roman Empire, England, the Netherlands and Royal Hungary
Apr 11 John Eliot (statesman) an English statesman who was serially imprisoned in the Tower of London, where he eventually died, by King Charles I for advocating the rights and privileges of Parliament.
Apr 22 Wilhelm Schickard a German professor of Hebrew and Astronomy who became famous in the second part of the 20th century after Franz Hammer, a biographer of Johannes Kepler, claimed that the drawings of a calculating clock, predating the public release of Pascal's calculator by twenty years, had been discovered in two unknown letters written by Schickard to Johannes Kepler in 1623 and 1624.
May 1 Johann Adam Schall von Bell a German Jesuit and astronomer. He spent most of his life as a missionary in China and became an adviser to the Shunzhi Emperor of the Qing dynasty
May 8 Francis Quarles an English poet most famous for his Emblem book aptly entitled Emblems.
Jul 10 Pierre d'Hozier a French genealogist.
Jul 20 Johan Björnsson Printz governor from 1643 until 1653 of the Swedish colony of New Sweden on the Delaware River in North America.
Aug 1 François le Métel de Boisrobert a French poet, playwright, and courtier.
Aug 28 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham the favourite, claimed by some to be the lover, of King James I of England. Despite a very patchy political and military record, he remained at the height of royal favour for the first three years of the reign of Charles I, until he was assassinated
Oct 22 Gustav Horn Count of Pori a Swedish/Finnish soldier and politician. He was the youngest son of Field Marshal Carl Horn and Agneta von Dellwig, born while his father was imprisoned in Örbyhus Castle, after the defeat against the Russians
Nov 5 Charles Chauncy an Anglo-American clergyman and educator.
Nov 28 Hong Taiji an Emperor of the Qing dynasty. He was responsible for consolidating the empire that his father Nurhaci had founded. He laid the groundwork for the conquering of the Ming dynasty, although he died before this was accomplished. He was also responsible for changing the name of his people from Jurchen to Manchu in 1635, as well as that of the dynasty from Later Jin to Qing in 1636. The Qing dynasty lasted until 1912
Dec 6 William Cavendish 1st Duke of Newcastle an English polymath and aristocrat, having been a poet, equestrian, playwright, swordsman, politician, architect, diplomat and soldier. Born into the very wealthy Cavendish family at Handsworth in the county of Yorkshire, William's family had a good relationship with the ruling Stuart monarchy and began to gather prominence after he was invested as a Knight of the Bath and soon inherited his father's Northern England estates