Died in 1594

Feb 2 Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina an Italian Renaissance composer of sacred music and the best-known 16th-century representative of the Roman School of musical composition. He has had a lasting influence on the development of church music, and his work has often been seen as the culmination of Renaissance polyphony
Feb 7 Barnabe Googe a poet and translator, one of the earliest English pastoral poets.
Mar 15 Casiodoro de Reina a Lutheran theologian who translated the Bible into Spanish.
Apr 29 Thomas Cooper (bishop) an English bishop, lexicographer, theologian, and writer.
May 30 Bálint Balassi a Hungarian Renaissance lyric poet. He wrote mostly in Hungarian, but was also proficient in further eight languages: Latin, Italian, German, Polish, Turkish, Slovak, Croatian and Romanian. He is the founder of modern Hungarian lyric and erotic poetry
May 31 Tintoretto an Italian painter and a notable exponent of the Renaissance school. For his phenomenal energy in painting he was termed Il Furioso. His work is characterized by its muscular figures, dramatic gestures, and bold use of perspective in the Mannerist style, while maintaining color and light typical of the Venetian School
Jun 3 John Aylmer (bishop) an English bishop, constitutionalist and a Greek scholar.
Jun 14 Orlande de Lassus a Netherlandish or Franco-Flemish composer of the late Renaissance. He is today considered to be the chief representative of the mature polyphonic style of the Franco-Flemish school, and one of the three most famous and influential musicians in Europe at the end of the 16th century
Jun 29 Niels Kaas a Danish politician who served as Chancellor of Denmark from 1573 until his death. He was influential in the negotiation of the Peace of Stettin and in the upbringing of Christian Kaas also played an important role in the emancipation of Schleswig-Holstein
Jul 10 Paolo Bellasio an Italian composer and organist of the late Renaissance. He is generally considered to be a member of the Roman School, though unusually for the group he seems to have written only madrigals
Jul 24 John Boste a saint in the Roman Catholic Church, and one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales.
Aug 5 Archduchess Eleanor of Austria the daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary.
Aug 15 Thomas Kyd an English dramatist, the author of The Spanish Tragedy, and one of the most important figures in the development of Elizabethan drama.
Sep 16 Caspar Schütz a German historian.
Oct 8 Ishikawa Goemon For the character in the Ganbare Goemon franchise, see Goemon.
Oct 16 William Allen (cardinal) an English Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. Allen assisted in the planning of the Spanish Armada's attempted invasion of England, and would likely have been made Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Chancellor had it been successful. The Douai-Rheims Bible was printed under Allen's orders. His activities were part of the Catholic Counter Reformation, but they made matters worse for Roman Catholics in England and in Ireland. He advised and recommended Pope Pius V to "depose" Elizabeth After her Sentence of Excommunication and "Deposition" from the Pope, Elizabeth chose not to continue with her policy of religious tolerance, and instead began the persecution of her Catholic religious opponents
Nov 15 Martin Frobisher an English seaman who made three voyages to the New World to look for the Northwest Passage. All landed in northeastern Canada, around today's Resolution Island and Frobisher Bay. On his second voyage, Frobisher found what he thought was gold ore and carried 200 tons of it home on three ships, where initial assaying determined it to be worth a profit of £5.2 per ton. Encouraged, Frobisher returned to Canada with an even larger fleet and dug several mines around Frobisher Bay. He carted 1,350 tons of the ore back where, after years of smelting, it was realised that both that batch of ore and the earlier one he had taken were worthless iron pyrite. As an English privateer/pirate, he collected riches from French ships. He was later knighted for his service in repelling the Spanish Armada in 1588
Nov 29 Alonso de Ercilla a Spanish nobleman, soldier and epic poet, born in Ocaña. While in Chile he fought against the Araucanians , and there he began the epic poem La Araucana, considered one of the greatest Spanish historical poems. This heroic work in 37 cantos is divided into three parts, published in 1569, 1578, and 1589. It tells of the courageous insurrection of the Araucanians and also relates the history of Chile and of contemporary Spain
Dec 2 Gerardus Mercator a cartographer, philosopher and mathematician. He is best known for his work in cartography, in particular the world map of 1569 based on a new projection which represented sailing courses of constant bearing as straight lines. He was the first to use the term "atlas" for a collection of maps