Born in 1596

Jan 13 Jan van Goyen a Dutch landscape painter. Van Goyen was an extremely prolific artist; approximately twelve hundred paintings and more than one thousand drawings by him are known
Feb 2 Jacob van Campen a Dutch artist and architect of the Golden Age.
Mar 16 Ebba Brahe a Swedish countess, landowner and courtier. She is foremost known for being the love object of king Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, and because he wished to marry her prior to his marriage, plans which were however never realized. Their love affair has been famous in the Swedish romantic history and the subject of fiction, and are documented in their preserved correspondence
Mar 31 René Descartes a French philosopher, mathematician and writer who spent most of his life in the Dutch Republic. He has been dubbed the father of modern philosophy, and much subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day. In particular, his Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments. Descartes' influence in mathematics is equally apparent; the Cartesian coordinate system — allowing reference to a point in space as a set of numbers, and allowing algebraic equations to be expressed as geometric shapes in a two-dimensional coordinate system — was named after him. He is credited as the father of analytical geometry, the bridge between algebra and geometry, crucial to the discovery of infinitesimal calculus and analysis. Descartes was also one of the key figures in the scientific revolution and has been described as an example of genius. He refused to accept the authority of previous philosophers, and refused to trust his own senses. Descartes frequently sets his views apart from those of his predecessors. In the opening section of the Passions of the Soul, a treatise on the early modern version of what are now commonly called emotions, Descartes goes so far as to assert that he will write on this topic "as if no one had written on these matters before". Many elements of his philosophy have precedents in late Aristotelianism, the revived Stoicism of the 16th century, or in earlier philosophers like Augustine. In his natural philosophy, he differs from the schools on two major points: First, he rejects the splitting of corporeal substance into matter and form; second, he rejects any appeal to final ends—divine or natural—in explaining natural phenomena. In his theology, he insists on the absolute freedom of God's act of creation
Apr 8 Juan van der Hamen a Spanish painter, a master of the still life paintings, also called bodegones. During his lifetime, he was prolific and versatile, painting allegories, landscapes, and large-scale works for churches and convents. However, today he is remembered mostly for his still lifes. In the 1620s, He popularized still life painting in Madrid
May 9 Abraham van Diepenbeeck an erudite and accomplished Dutch painter of the Flemish School.
Jun 23 Johan Banér a Swedish Field Marshal in the Thirty Years' War.
Jun 29 Emperor Go-Mizunoo the 108th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession.
Jul 12 Michael I of Russia the first Russian Tsar of the house of Romanov. He was the son of Feodor Nikitich Romanov and Xenia. His reign marked the end of the Time of Troubles
Jul 24 Luis de Velasco marqués de Salinas Spanish nobleman, son of the second viceroy of New Spain, and himself the eighth viceroy. He governed from January 27, 1590 to November 4, 1595, and again from July 2, 1607 to June 10, 1611. In between he was viceroy of Peru for eight years
Aug 18 Jean Bolland a Jesuit priest and prominent Flemish hagiographer.
Aug 19 Elizabeth Stuart Queen of Bohemia was, as the wife of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, Electress Palatine, and briefly, Queen of Bohemia. Because her husband’s reign in Bohemia lasted for just one winter, Elizabeth often is referred to as The Winter Queen. She was the second child and eldest daughter of James VI and I, King of Scots, England, and Ireland, and his wife, Anne of Denmark
Aug 26 Frederick V Elector Palatine often nicknamed the Winter King.
Sep 4 Constantijn Huygens a Dutch Golden Age poet and composer. He was secretary to two Princes of Orange: Frederick Henry and William II, and the father of the scientist Christiaan Huygens
Sep 23 Joan Blaeu a Dutch cartographer born in Alkmaar, the son of cartographer Willem Blaeu.
Nov 1 Pietro da Cortona primarily known by the name of his native town of Cortona in Tuscany. He was the leading Italian Baroque painter of his time and, along with his contemporaries and rivals Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Francesco Borromini, was one of the key figures in the emergence of Roman Baroque architecture. He was also an important designer of interior decorations
Nov 11 Catherine Henriette de Bourbon an illegitimate daughter of King Henry IV of France and his long-term maîtresse en titre Gabrielle d'Estrées. She was declared legitimate on 17 November 1596 at the Abbey of Ouen in Rouen and married into the Princely House of Guise
Dec 3 Nicola Amati an Italian luthier from Cremona.
Dec 21 Thomas Francis Prince of Carignano an Italian military commander, the founder of the Savoy-Carignano branch of the House of Savoy which reigned as kings of Sardinia from 1831 to 1861, and as kings of Italy from 1861 until the dynasty's deposition in 1946.
Dec 21 Peter Mogila a Metropolitan of Kiev, Halych and All-Rus' from 1633 until his death. He was born into a Moldavian boyar family — the Movilești — one that gave Moldavia and Wallachia several rulers, including his father, Simion Movilă; also, his great-grandfather was the Moldavian Voivode Petru Rareș. Moldavia, Wallahia and part of Transylvania belonged to the Eastern Orthodox Church, and Old Church Slavonic was used, until the 17th century, as the common liturgical language in Romanian principalities. Peter Mogila's mother, Marghita , was the daughter of a Moldavian logothete, Gavrilaș Hâra. Peter Mogila's sister Raina Mohylanka married prince Wisniowiecki, and their son Jeremi Wiśniowiecki was Mogila's nephew and supporter even though he himself changed the faith to marry a Roman Catholic princess and to inherit the Polish crown. From his early childhood, Petro Mohyla and his mother were on the move in foreign lands seeking refuge due to instability in Wallachia. For a time, they lived in Kamianets-Podilskyi in Ukraine. But in 1608 they moved to Poland and for sixteen years stayed in Stanisław Żółkiewski's castle.:100 There he started his formal schooling, which, prior to the arrival to the castle, was often interrupted by frequent moves. Petro’s teachers were monks from the Lviv brotherhood and later, he continued his studies of classical literature in Latin, Greek, Polish, Old Slavic and Old Belorussian languages at the academy in Zamość , founded in 1594 by Polish Crown Chancellor Jan Zamoyski. Later Mohyla continued his studies in Paris