Born in 1599

Feb 12 Duke Friedrich of Saxe-Altenburg a member of the Ernestine branche of the House of Wettin and a Duke of Saxe-Altenburg and Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg. Friedrich is sometimes called "Friedrich the younger" to distinguish him from Prince Frederick of Saxe-Weimar, as they were both called "Friedrich of Saxe-Weimar"
Feb 13 Pope Alexander VII Pope from 7 April 1655 to his death in 1667.
Mar 22 Anthony van Dyck a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England, after enjoying great success in Italy and Flanders. He is most famous for his portraits of Charles I of England and his family and court, painted with a relaxed elegance that was to be the dominant influence on English portrait-painting for the next 150 years. He also painted biblical and mythological subjects, displayed outstanding facility as a draftsman, and was an important innovator in watercolour and etching
Mar 23 Thomas Selle a seventeenth-century German baroque composer.
Mar 28 Witte Corneliszoon de With a famous Dutch naval officer of the 17th century.
Apr 25 Oliver Cromwell an English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Jun 6 Diego Velázquez a Spanish painter who was the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV and one of the most important painters of the Spanish Golden Age. He was an individualistic artist of the contemporary Baroque period, important as a portrait artist. In addition to numerous renditions of scenes of historical and cultural significance, he painted scores of portraits of the Spanish royal family, other notable European figures, and commoners, culminating in the production of his masterpiece Las Meninas
Jul 27 Albert IV Duke of Saxe-Eisenach a ruler of the duchy of Saxe-Eisenach. He was the seventh son of Johann, Duke of Saxe-Weimar, and Dorothea Maria of Anhalt. His regnal name Albert IV derives from the numbering of the duchy of Saxony as a whole, not specifically to the succession in Saxe-Eisenach
Aug 14 Méric Casaubon a French-English classical scholar. Although biographical dictionaries commonly accentuate his name to Méric, he himself did not do so
Sep 20 Christian the Younger of Brunswick a German Protestant military leader during the Thirty Years' War. During the war, he earned a reputation as a dangerous fanatic
Sep 24 Adam Olearius a German scholar, mathematician, geographer and librarian. He became secretary to the ambassador sent by Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, to the Shah of Persia, and published two books about the events and observations during his travels
Sep 25 Francesco Borromini an Italian architect born in today's Ticino who, with his contemporaries Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Pietro da Cortona, was a leading figure in the emergence of Roman Baroque architecture.
Oct 10 Étienne Moulinié a French Baroque composer. He was born in Languedoc, and when he was a child he sang at the Narbonne Cathedral. Through the influence of his brother Antoine , Moulinié gained an appointment at court, as the director of music for Gaston d'Orléans, the younger brother of the king. For this post he wrote sacred and secular music, for voice or voices and lute or continuo. He also wrote music to accompany the ballet or other dances. He taught Gaston's daughter, Mlle de Montpensier. Moulinié worked for Gaston until his death in 1660, at which point Moulinié was forced to find new employment. For this he returned to his birthplace of Languedoc
Oct 11 Abraham de Fabert a Marshal of France.
Oct 28 Marie of the Incarnation (Ursuline) a French Ursuline nun and the leader of the group of nuns sent to establish the Ursuline Order in New France. She founded the oldest educational institution for females in North America. She has been declared a saint by the Catholic Church and the Anglican Church of Canada also celebrates her life and works with a feast day
Oct 31 Denzil Holles 1st Baron Holles an English statesman and writer, best known as one of the Five Members whose attempted unconstitutional arrest by King Charles I in the House of Commons of England in 1642 sparked the Civil War.
Nov 11 Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg a German princess and queen consort of Sweden.
Nov 11 Ottavio Piccolomini an Italian nobleman whose military career included service as a Spanish general and then as a field marshal of the Holy Roman Empire.
Nov 13 Otto Christoph von Sparr a Generalfeldmarschall of Brandenburg-Prussia.
Nov 30 Andrea Sacchi an Italian painter of High Baroque Classicism, active in Rome. A generation of artists who shared his style of art include the painters Nicolas Poussin and Giovanni Battista Passeri, the sculptors Alessandro Algardi and François Duquesnoy, and the contemporary biographer Giovanni Bellori
Dec 11 Pieter Codde Jacobsz. Codde was a Dutch painter of genre works, guardroom scenes and portraits
Dec 14 Pieter van Laer a Dutch Golden Age painter of genre scenes, active for over a decade in Rome, where his nickname was Il Bamboccio. Artists working in his style became known as the Bamboccianti