Born in 1601

Jan 2 Tokugawa Yoshinao a Japanese daimyo of the early Edo period.
Jan 8 Baltasar Gracián a Spanish Jesuit and baroque prose writer and philosopher. He was born in Belmonte, near Calatayud. His proto-existentialist writings were lauded by Nietzsche and Schopenhauer
Jan 19 Guido Cagnacci an Italian painter of the late-Baroque period, belonging to the Forlì painting school and to the Bolognese School.
Feb 22 Pierre Chanut a civil servant in the Auvergne, a French ambassador and state counsellor.
Mar 19 Alonzo Cano a Spanish painter, architect and sculptor born in Granada.
Mar 20 Henri Count of Harcourt a French nobleman. He was count of Harcourt, count of Armagnac, count of Brionne and viscount of Marsan. He was the younger son of Charles I, Duke of Elbeuf and his wife Marguerite de Chabot, countess of Charny
Apr 22 Charles Philip Duke of Södermanland a Swedish prince, Duke of Södermanland, Närke and Värmland. Charles Philip was the second surviving son of King Charles IX of Sweden and his second spouse, Duchess Christina of Holstein-Gottorp
May 27 Antoine Daniel a Jesuit missionary at Sainte-Marie among the Hurons, and one of the eight Canadian Martyrs.
Jul 30 Anne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt the daughter of Louis V, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt and Magdalena von Brandenburg. She was born in Darmstadt, Hesse
Aug 17 Pierre de Fermat given credit for early developments that led to infinitesimal calculus, including his technique of adequality. In particular, he is recognized for his discovery of an original method of finding the greatest and the smallest ordinates of curved lines, which is analogous to that of the differential calculus, then unknown, and his research into number theory. He made notable contributions to analytic geometry, probability, and optics. He is best known for Fermat's Last Theorem, which he described in a note at the margin of a copy of Diophantus' Arithmetica
Aug 22 Georges de Scudéry a French novelist, dramatist and poet.
Sep 13 Jan Brueghel the Younger a Flemish Baroque painter, and the son of Jan Brueghel the Elder.
Sep 22 Justus van Egmont a Dutch Golden Age painter and designer of tapestry.
Sep 22 Anne of Austria queen consort of France and Navarre, regent for her son, Louis XIV of France, and a Spanish and Portuguese Infanta by birth. During her regency Cardinal Mazarin served as France's chief minister. Accounts of French court life of her era emphasize her difficult marital relations with her husband Louis XIII, her closeness to her son Louis XIV, and her disapproval of her son's marital infidelity to her niece Maria Theresa
Sep 27 Louis XIII of France a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged to the French crown.
Oct 7 Florimond de Beaune a French jurist and mathematician, and an early follower of René Descartes. Taton calls him "a typical example of the erudite amateurs" active in 17th-century science
Oct 24 Alvise Contarini the 106th Doge of Venice, reigning from his election on August 26, 1676 until his death seven and a half years later. He was the eighth and final member of the House of Contarini to serve as Doge of Venice
Nov 9 Frederick William Duke of Cieszyn a Duke of Cieszyn since 1617 until his death.
Nov 14 John Eudes a French missionary and priest, who founded the Congregation of Jesus and Mary and the Order of Our Lady of Charity, and was the author of the propers for the Mass and Divine Office of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary. He has been declared a saint by the Catholic Church
Dec 25 Ernest I Duke of Saxe-Gotha a duke of Saxe-Gotha and Saxe-Altenburg. The duchies were later merged into Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg