Died in 1606

Jan 20 Alessandro Valignano a Jesuit missionary born in Chieti, part of the Kingdom of Naples, who helped supervise the introduction of Catholicism to the Far East, and especially to Japan.
Jan 28 Guillaume Costeley a French composer of the Renaissance. He was the court organist to Charles IX of France and famous for his numerous chansons, which were representative of the late development of the form; his work in this regard was part of the early development of the style known as musique mesurée. He was also one of very few 16th century French composers of music for keyboard. In addition, he was a founding member of the Académie de Poésie et de Musique along with poet Jean-Antoine de Baïf, and he was one of the earliest composers to experiment with microtonal composition
Jan 30 Everard Digby a member of the group of provincial English Catholics who planned the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605. Although he was raised in a Protestant household, and married a Protestant, Digby and his wife were converted to Catholicism by the Jesuit priest John Gerard. In the autumn of 1605 he was part of a Catholic pilgrimage to the shrine of St Winefride's Well in Holywell. About this time he met Robert Catesby, a religious fanatic who planned to blow up the House of Lords with gunpowder, killing James Catesby then planned to incite a popular revolt, during which a Catholic monarch would be restored to the English throne
Jan 30 Robert and Thomas Wintour also spelt Winter, were members of the Gunpowder Plot, a failed conspiracy to assassinate King James Both were related to other conspirators, such as their cousin, Robert Catesby, and a half-brother, John Wintour, also joined them following the plot's failure. Thomas was an intelligent and educated man, fluent in several languages and trained as a lawyer, but chose instead to become a soldier, fighting for England in the Low Countries, France, and possibly in Central Europe. By 1600, however, he changed his mind and became a fervent Catholic. On several occasions he travelled to the continent and entreated Spain on behalf of England's oppressed Catholics, and suggested that with Spanish support a Catholic rebellion was likely
Jan 31 Ambrose Rookwood a member of the failed 1605 Gunpowder Plot, a conspiracy to replace the Protestant King James I with a Catholic monarch. Rookwood was born into a wealthy family of Catholic recusants, and educated by Jesuits at Flanders. His older brother became a Franciscan, and his two younger brothers were ordained as Catholic priests. Rookwood, however, became a horse-breeder. He married the Catholic Elizabeth Tyrwhitt, and had at least two sons
Jan 31 Guy Fawkes a member of a group of provincial English Catholics who planned the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605.
Mar 7 Bogislaw XIII Duke of Pomerania a prince of Stettin and Wolgast, and a member of the Griffins.
Mar 16 Gaspar de Zúñiga 5th Count of Monterrey Acevedo y Fonseca, 5th Count of Monterrey , Spanish nobleman, the ninth viceroy of New Spain. He governed from November 5, 1595 to October 26, 1603. From January 18, 1604 until his death in 1606, he was viceroy of Peru
Mar 23 Turibius of Mogrovejo a Spanish missionary Archbishop of Lima.
Mar 23 Justus Lipsius a Flemish philologist and humanist. Lipsius wrote a series of works designed to revive ancient Stoicism in a form that would be compatible with Christianity. The most famous of these is De Constantia. His form of Stoicism influenced a number of contemporary thinkers, creating the intellectual movement of Neostoicism. He taught at the universities in Jena, Leiden and Leuven
Apr 3 Charles Blount 8th Baron Mountjoy an English nobleman and soldier who served as Lord Deputy of Ireland under Queen Elizabeth I, then as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland under King James I.
May 3 Henry Garnet an English Jesuit priest executed for his complicity in the Gunpowder Plot of 1605. Born in Heanor, Derbyshire, he was educated in Nottingham and later at Winchester College, before he moved to London in 1571, to work for a publisher. There he professed an interest in legal studies, and in 1575 he travelled to the continent and joined the Society of Jesus. He was ordained in Rome some time around 1582
May 17 False Dmitriy I the Tsar of Russia from 21 July 1605 until his death on 17 May 1606 under the name of Dimitriy Ioannovich. He is sometimes referred to under the title of Dmitriy He was one of three impostors who claimed during the Time of Troubles to be the youngest son of Ivan the Terrible, tsarevitch Dmitriy Ivanovich, who had supposedly escaped a 1591 assassination attempt. It is generally believed that the real Dmitriy died in Uglich and that this False Dmitriy's real name was Grigory Otrepyev, although this is far from certain
May 30 Guru Arjan the first Sikh martyr and the fifth of the eleven Sikh Gurus, who compiled writings to create the eleventh, the living Guru, Guru Granth Sahib. He was born in Goindval, Punjab the youngest son of Guru Ram Das and Bibi Bhani, the daughter of Guru Amar Das. He was the first Sikh Guru killed by Muslims
Sep 2 Karel van Mander a Flemish-born painter, poet, art historian and art theoretician, who established himself in the Dutch Republic in the latter part of his life. He is mainly remembered as a biographer of Early Netherlandish painters and Netherlandish artists in his Schilder-boeck. As an artist and art theoretician he played a significant role in the spread and development of Northern Mannerism in the Dutch Republic
Sep 7 George X of Kartli a king of the eastern Georgian kingdom of Kartli from 1599 until his death.
Sep 28 Nicolaus Taurellus a German philosopher and theologian.
Oct 5 Philippe Desportes a French poet.
Nov 13 Girolamo Mercuriale an Italian philologist and physician, most famous for his work De Arte Gymnastica.
Dec 29 Stephen Bocskay a Hungarian Calvinist nobleman, and Prince of Transylvania , who was an eager advocate of the Hungarian interests and became the leader of a revolt against the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor's effort to impose Roman Catholicism on the Kingdom of Hungary, when it was partitioned between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Monarchy. He established an alliance with the Ottoman Empire and, supported by the hajduks, compelled archduke Matthias to reaffirm and guarantee religious freedom for both Royal Hungary and Transylvania concluded by the Treaty of Vienna. As a recognized patron of Protestant Reformation, his statue can be found on the Reformation Wall in Geneva, Switzerland