Born in 1609

Feb 10 John Suckling (poet) an English poet and one prominent figure among those renowned for careless gaiety, wit, and all the accomplishments of a Cavalier poet; and also the inventor of the card game cribbage. He is best known for his poem "Ballad Upon a Wedding"
Feb 18 Edward Hyde 1st Earl of Clarendon an English statesman, historian, and maternal grandfather of two English, Scottish and Irish monarchs, Queen Mary II and Queen Anne.
Feb 21 Raimondo Montecuccoli an Italian military commander who also served as general for the Habsburg Monarchy, and was also a prince of the Holy Roman Empire and Neapolitan Duke of Melfi.
Mar 18 Frederick III of Denmark king of Denmark and Norway from 1648 until his death. He also governed under the name Frederick II as diocesan administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Verden , and the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen
Mar 22 John II Casimir Vasa King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania during the era of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Duke of Opole in Upper Silesia, and titular King of Sweden 1648–1660. In Poland, he is known and commonly referred as Jan Kazimierz. His parents were Sigismund III Vasa and Constance of Austria. His older brother, and predecessor on the throne, was Władysław IV Vasa
Mar 23 Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione an Italian Baroque artist, painter, printmaker and draftsman, of the Genoese school. He is best known now for his elaborate engravings, and as the inventor of the printmaking technique of monotyping. He was known as Il Grechetto in Italy and in France as Le Benédette
May 16 Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria Governor of the Spanish Netherlands, Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church, Infante of Spain, Infante of Portugal , Archduke of Austria, Archbishop of Toledo , and military commander during the Thirty Years' War.
Jun 29 Pierre-Paul Riquet the engineer and canal-builder responsible for the construction of the Canal du Midi.
Jul 28 Judith Leyster a Dutch Golden Age painter. Leyster painted genre works, a few portraits, and still lifes. The number of surviving works attributed to her varies between fewer than 20 and about 35
Jul 29 Maria Gonzaga Duchess of Montferrat an Italian princess of the House of Gonzaga: she was Regent in Mantua during the minority of her son from 1637 until 1647, and reigning sovereign duchess of Montferrat from 1612 until 1660.
Aug 6 Richard Bennett (Governor) an English Governor of the Colony of Virginia.
Aug 20 Jean Rotrou a French poet and tragedian.
Aug 25 Giovanni Battista Salvi da Sassoferrato an Italian Baroque painter. He is often referred to only by the town of his birthplace , as was customary in his time, and for example seen with da Vinci and Caravaggio
Aug 30 Artus Quellinus the Elder a Flemish sculptor. He is regarded as the most important representative of the Baroque in sculpture in the Southern Netherlands. His work had a major influence on the development of sculpture in Northern Europe
Oct 3 John Clarke (Baptist minister) a medical doctor, Baptist minister, co-founder of the colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, author of its influential charter, and a leading advocate of religious freedom in the Americas.
Oct 5 Paul Fleming (poet) a German physician and poet.
Oct 19 Gerrard Winstanley an English Protestant religious reformer and political activist during The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell. Winstanley was one of the founders of the English group known as the True Levellers or Diggers for their beliefs, and for their actions. The group occupied public lands that had been privatised by enclosures and dug them over, pulling down hedges and filling in ditches, to plant crops. True Levellers was the name they used to describe themselves, whereas the term Diggers was coined by contemporaries
Oct 26 William Sprague (1609–1675) left England on the ship Lyon's Whelp for Plymouth/Salem Massachusetts. He was originally from Upwey, near Weymouth, Dorset, England
Nov 1 Matthew Hale (jurist) an influential English barrister, judge and lawyer most noted for his treatise Historia Placitorum Coronæ, or The History of the Pleas of the Crown. Born to a barrister and his wife, who had both died by the time he was 5, Hale was raised by his father's relative, a strict Puritan, and inherited his faith. In 1626 he matriculated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford , intending to become a priest, but after a series of distractions was persuaded to become a barrister like his father thanks to an encounter with a Serjeant-at-Law in a dispute over his estate. On 8 November 1628 he joined Lincoln's Inn, where he was called to the Bar on 17 May 1636. As a barrister, Hale represented a variety of Royalist figures during the prelude and duration of the English Civil War, including Thomas Wentworth and William Laud; it has been hypothesised that Hale was to represent Charles I at his state trial, and conceived the defence Charles used. Despite the Royalist loss, Hale's reputation for integrity and his political neutrality saved him from any repercussions, and under the Commonwealth of England he was made Chairman of the Hale Commission, which investigated law reform. Following the Commission's dissolution, Oliver Cromwell made him a Justice of the Common Pleas
Nov 23 Sophia Eleonore of Saxony a Duchess of Saxony by birth and the Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1627 to 1661 through her marriage to Landgrave George She was the eldest surviving child of John George I, Elector of Saxony, and Magdalene Sibylle of Prussia. Her daughter Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt became Electress of the Palatinate
Nov 25 Henrietta Maria of France queen consort of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the wife of King Charles She was mother of his two immediate successors, Charles II and James II.
Dec 6 Nicholas Francis Duke of Lorraine briefly Duke of Lorraine and Duke of Bar for a few months in 1634, spanning the time between the abdication of his older brother and his own resignation. He was therefore Duke during the invasion of Lorraine by the French in the Thirty Years War
Dec 24 Philip Warwick the son of Thomas Warwick, or Warrick, a musician.