Died in 1609

Jan 4 Giovanni Giacomo Gastoldi an Italian composer of the late Renaissance and early Baroque periods. He is known for his 1591 publication of balletti for five voices
Jan 21 Joseph Justus Scaliger a French religious leader and scholar, known for expanding the notion of classical history from Greek and ancient Roman history to include Persian, Babylonian, Jewish and ancient Egyptian history. He spent the end of his life in the Netherlands
Feb 17 Ferdinando I de' Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1587 to 1609, having succeeded his older brother Francesco I.
Feb 28 Paul Sartorius (composer) a German composer and organist.
Mar 25 John William Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg a Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg.
Mar 25 Olaus Martini Archbishop of Uppsala from 1601 to his death.
Apr 4 Carolus Clusius a Flemish doctor and pioneering botanist, perhaps the most influential of all 16th-century scientific horticulturists.
Apr 6 Merkelis Giedraitis Bishop of Samogitia from 1576 to 1609. He actively combated Reformation implementing resolutions of Council of Trent in Samogitia
Apr 14 Gasparo da Salò the name given to Gasparo di Bertolotti, one of the earliest violin makers and an expert double bass player. Around 80 of his instruments are still in existence: violins , alto and tenor violas, viols, violones and double basses, violas with only a pair of corners, ceteras
May 15 Giovanni Croce an Italian composer of the late Renaissance, of the Venetian School. He was particularly prominent as a madrigalist, one of the few among the Venetians other than Monteverdi
May 19 García Hurtado de Mendoza 5th Marquis of Cañete a Spanish soldier, governor of Chile, and later viceroy of Peru. He is often known simply as "Marquis of Cañete". Belonging to an influential family of Spanish noblemen Hurtado de Mendoza successfully fought the native Mapuche during his stay as Governor of Chile, and got the city of Mendoza named after him. In his later position as Viceroy of Peru he sponsored Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira expedition to the Salomon Islands and had the Marquesas Islands named after him
May 22 Pieter Willemsz. Verhoeff Verhoeff was a Dutch captain of the Admiralty of Amsterdam, notable for his voyage to Asia between 1607 and 1612
Jul 15 Annibale Carracci an Italian Baroque painter.
Jul 20 Federico Zuccari an Italian Mannerist painter and architect, active both in Italy and abroad.
Aug 28 Francis Vere an English soldier, famed for his military career in the Low Countries.
Sep 17 Judah Loew ben Bezalel alt. Loewe, Löwe, or Levai, widely known to scholars of Judaism as the Maharal of Prague, or simply The MaHaRaL, the Hebrew acronym of "Moreinu ha-Rav Loew," was an important Talmudic scholar, Jewish mystic, and philosopher who, for most of his life, served as a leading rabbi in the cities of Mikulov in Moravia and Prague in Bohemia
Oct 1 Giammateo Asola an Italian composer of the late Renaissance. He was a prolific composer of sacred music, mostly in a conservative style, although he may have been one of the first composers to write a part for basso continuo
Oct 16 Dorothea Hedwig of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel a princess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel by birth and by marriage Princess of Anhalt-Zerbst.
Oct 19 Jacobus Arminius the Latinized name of the Dutch theologian Jakob Hermanszoon from the Protestant Reformation period, served from 1603 as professor in theology at the University of Leiden. He wrote many books and treatises on theology, and his views became the basis of Arminianism and the Dutch Remonstrant movement
Dec 4 Alexander Hume a Scottish poet.