Died in 1610

Mar 19 Hasegawa Tōhaku a Japanese painter and founder of the Hasegawa school of Japanese painting during the Azuchi-Momoyama period.
Apr 15 Robert Persons an English Jesuit priest. He was a major figure in establishing the 16th-century "English Mission" of the Society of Jesus
May 11 Matteo Ricci S.J. was an Italian Jesuit priest and one of the founding figures of the Jesuit China missions. His 1602 map of the world in Chinese characters introduced the findings of European exploration to East Asia. Within Roman Catholicism, he is considered a Servant of God
May 13 Maria Vladimirovna of Staritsa a Russian princess. She was the daughter of Prince Vladimir of Staritsa and his wife, Princess Eudoxia Romanovna Odoevskaya, and, through her father, descended from Zoe Palaiologina
May 14 Henry IV of France King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first French monarch of the House of Bourbon
May 19 Thomas Sanchez a 16th-century Spanish Jesuit and famous casuist.
May 27 François Ravaillac a French factotum in the courts of Angoulême and a regicide. An occasional tutor and Catholic zealot, he murdered King Henry IV of France in 1610
Jul 18 Caravaggio an Italian painter active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily between 1592 and 1610. His paintings, which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, had a formative influence on Baroque painting
Jul 22 Pedro Henriquez de Acevedo Count of Fuentes a Spanish general and statesman.
Jul 22 Charles I Duke of Mecklenburg the reigning Duke of Mecklenburg in the Mecklenburg-Güstrow part of the country.
Aug 5 Alonso García de Ramón a Spanish soldier and twice Royal Governor of Chile: first temporarily from July 1600 to February 1601, and then from March 1605 to August 1610. He was born in Cuenca, Spain in 1552
Sep 2 Henricus Canisius a Dutch canonist and historian.
Sep 19 Frederick IV Elector Palatine of the Rhine , only surviving son of Louis VI, Elector Palatine and Elisabeth of Hesse, called "Frederick the Righteous".
Oct 6 Hosokawa Fujitaka a Japanese samurai daimyo of the Sengoku period. Fujitaka was a prominent retainer of the last Ashikaga shoguns. When he joined the Oda, Oda Nobunaga rewarded him with the fief of Tango. His son, Hosokawa Tadaoki, went on to become one of the Oda clan's senior generals
Oct 14 Amago Yoshihisa a daimyō of Izumo Province.
Oct 26 Francesco Vanni an Italian painter of the Mannerist style, active in Rome and his native city of Siena.
Nov 2 Richard Bancroft an English churchman, who became Archbishop of Canterbury and the "chief overseer" of the production of the King James Bible.
Dec 3 Honda Tadakatsu a Japanese general of the late Sengoku through early Edo period, who served Tokugawa Ieyasu. Honda Tadakatsu was one of the Tokugawa Four Heavenly Kings along with Ii Naomasa, Sakakibara Yasumasa and Sakai Tadatsugu
Dec 11 Adam Elsheimer a German artist working in Rome who died at only thirty-two, but was very influential in the early 17th century. His relatively few paintings were small scale, nearly all painted on copper plates, of the type often known as cabinet paintings. They include a variety of light effects, and an innovative treatment of landscape. He was an influence on many other artists, including Rembrandt and Peter Paul Rubens
Dec 31 Ludolph van Ceulen a German-Dutch mathematician from Hildesheim. He emigrated to the Netherlands