Born in 1612

Jan 17 Thomas Fairfax a general and parliamentary commander-in-chief during the English Civil War. An adept and talented commander, Fairfax led Parliament to many victories, notably the crucial battle of Naseby, becoming effectively military ruler of the new republic, but was eventually overshadowed by his subordinate Oliver Cromwell, who was more politically adept and radical in action against Charles Fairfax became unhappy with Cromwell's policy and publicly refused to take part in Charles's show trial. Eventually he resigned leaving Cromwell to control the republic. Because of this, and also his honourable battlefield conduct and his active role in the Restoration of the monarchy after Cromwell's death, he was exempted from the retribution exacted on many other leaders of the revolution. His dark hair and eyes and a swarthy complexion earned him the nickname "Black Tom"
Feb 6 Antoine Arnauld a French Roman Catholic theologian, philosopher, and mathematician. He was one of the leading intellectuals of the Jansenist group of Port-Royal and had a very thorough knowledge of patristics
Feb 7 Thomas Killigrew an English dramatist and theatre manager. He was a witty, dissolute figure at the court of King Charles II of England
Feb 15 Paul de Chomedey Sieur de Maisonneuve a French military officer and the founder of Montreal in New France.
Feb 22 George Digby 2nd Earl of Bristol an English politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1640 until 1641 when he was raised to the House of Lords. He supported the Royalist cause in the English Civil War but his ambition and instability of character caused serious problems to himself and the Kings he served
Mar 20 Anne Bradstreet the most prominent of early English poets of North America and first female writer in the British North American colonies to be published. Her first volume of poetry was The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America, published in 1650. It was met with a positive reception in both the Old World and the New World
Apr 6 James Stewart 1st Duke of Richmond a Scottish nobleman. He was the eldest son of Esmé Stewart, 3rd Duke of Lennox and his wife Katherine Clifton, 2nd Baroness Clifton
Apr 12 Simone Cantarini an Italian painter and etcher of the Bolognese School of painting.
Apr 16 Abraham Calovius a Lutheran theologian, and was one of the champions of Lutheran orthodoxy in the 17th century.
Apr 28 Odoardo Farnese Duke of Parma Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1622 to 1646.
May 31 Margherita de' Medici Duchess of Parma and Piacenza by her marriage to Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma. Margherita was regent of Piacenza in 1635 and regent of the entire duchy in 1646 after the death of her husband
Jun 23 André Tacquet a brabantian mathematician and Jesuit Priest. His work prepared ground for the eventual discovery of the calculus
Jun 25 John Albert Vasa a Polish cardinal, and a Prince-Bishop of Warmia and Kraków. He was the son of Swedish and Polish King Sigismund III Vasa and Austrian archduchess Constance of Austria
Jul 26 Murad IV the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods. Murad IV was born in Constantinople, the son of Sultan Ahmed I and the ethnic Greek Valide Kösem Sultan. Brought to power by a palace conspiracy in 1623, he succeeded his uncle Mustafa He was only 11 when he took the throne
Aug 2 Saskia van Uylenburgh the wife of painter Rembrandt van Rijn. In the course of her life she was his model for some of his paintings, drawings and etchings. She was the daughter of a Frisian mayor
Aug 17 Jeremi Wiśniowiecki a notable member of the aristocracy of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Prince of Wiśniowiec, Łubnie and Chorol in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the father of the future King of Poland, Michael I.
Aug 28 Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn a Dutch scholar. Born in Bergen op Zoom, he was professor at the University of Leiden. He discovered the similarity among Indo-European languages, and supposed the existence of a primitive common language which he called 'Scythian'. He included in his hypothesis Greek, Latin, Persian, Turkish, and Germanic languages, later adding Slavic, Celtic and Baltic languages. He excluded such languages as Hebrew from his hypothesis
Sep 1 Nicolas Chorier a French lawyer, writer, and historian. He is known especially for his historical works on Dauphiné, as well as his erotic dialogue called The School of Women, or The Seven Flirtatious Encounters of Aloisia
Oct 25 James Graham 1st Marquess of Montrose a Scottish nobleman, poet and soldier, who initially joined the Covenanters in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, but subsequently supported King Charles I as the English Civil War developed. From 1644 to 1646, and again in 1650, he fought a civil war in Scotland on behalf of the King and is generally referred to in Scotland as simply "the Great Montrose"
Oct 27 Margravine Magdalene Sibylle of Brandenburg-Bayreuth Electress of Saxony from 1656 to 1680 as the wife of John George The daughter of Christian, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, and Marie of Prussia, she was by birth a Markgräfin, or Margravine, and a member of the Brandenburg-Bayreuth branch of the House of Hohenzollern.
Nov 7 Pierre Mignard a French painter. He was born at Troyes, and came of a family of artists; he also needs to be distinguished from his nephew Pierre , often called "Pierre II" or "Le Chevalier"
Nov 17 Dorgon a Manchu prince and regent of the early Qing Dynasty.
Dec 2 David Ryckaert III a Flemish Baroque painter. He started his career as a landscape painter but later specialized in genre paintings
Dec 12 Janusz Radziwiłł (1612–55) a notable Polish noble and magnate. Throughout his life he occupied a number of posts in the state administration, including that of Court Chamberlain of Lithuania and Field Hetman of Lithuania. He was also a voivode of Vilna Voivodeship, as well as a starost of Samogitia, Kamieniec, Kazimierz and Sejwy