Born in 1626

Jan 16 Lucas Achtschellinck a Flemish landscape painter.
Feb 5 Marie de Rabutin-Chantal marquise de Sévigné a French aristocrat, remembered for her letter-writing. Most of her letters, celebrated for their wit and vividness, were addressed to her daughter. She is revered in France as one of the great icons of French literature
Feb 18 Francesco Redi an Italian physician, naturalist, and poet. He was the first scientist to challenge the theory of spontaneous generation by demonstrating that maggots come from eggs of flies. He was also the first to recognize and correctly describe details of many important parasites, and for this reason, as many historians and scientists claim, he may rightly be called the father of modern parasitology, and also regarded as the founder of experimental biology
Feb 28 Cyril Tourneur now more generally attributed to Thomas Middleton.
Mar 12 John Aubrey an English antiquary, natural philosopher and writer. He is perhaps best known as the author of the Brief Lives, his collection of short biographical pieces. He was a pioneer archaeologist, who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England, and who is particularly noted as the discoverer of the Avebury henge monument. The Aubrey holes at Stonehenge are named after him, although there is considerable doubt as to whether the holes that he observed are those that currently bear the name. He was also a pioneer folklorist, collecting together a miscellany of material on customs, traditions and beliefs under the title "Remaines of Gentilisme and Judaisme". He set out to compile county histories of both Wiltshire and Surrey, although both projects remained unfinished. His "Interpretation of Villare Anglicanum" was the first attempt to compile a full-length study of English place-names. He had wider interests in applied mathematics and astronomy, and was friendly with many of the greatest scientists of the day
Mar 21 Peter of Saint Joseph Betancur a Spanish saint and missionary. Known as the "St. Francis of Assisi of the Americas", he is the first saint native to the Canary Islands, is also considered the first saint of Guatemala and Central America
Apr 5 Jan van Kessel the Elder a Flemish painter of still lifes and Jan Brueghel the Elder's grandson.
Apr 10 Franz Egon of Fürstenberg the elder son of Egon VIII of Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg , who served with distinction as a Bavarian general in the Thirty Years' War.
Apr 25 Sigmund von Birken a German poet of the Baroque.
May 12 Louis Hennepin a Catholic priest and missionary of the Franciscan Recollect order and an explorer of the interior of North America.
May 16 Willem Joseph van Ghent a 17th-century Dutch admiral. His surname is also sometimes rendered Gendt or Gent
May 27 William II Prince of Orange sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands from 14 March 1647 until his death three years later. His only child, also named William, would go on to reign as William III of England and Ireland, as well as William II in Scotland
Jul 15 Hedevig Ulfeldt the daughter of king Christian IV of Denmark and Kirsten Munk. She was the twin of her sister Christiane Sehested. She shared the title Countess of Schleswig-Holstein with her mother and siblings
Aug 1 Sabbatai Zevi a Sephardic Rabbi and kabbalist who claimed to be the long-awaited Jewish Messiah. He was the founder of the Jewish Sabbatean movement
Aug 12 Giovanni Legrenzi an Italian composer of opera, vocal and instrumental music, and organist, of the Baroque era. He was one of the most prominent composers in Venice in the late 17th century, and extremely influential in the development of late Baroque idioms across northern Italy
Sep 16 Leopold Wilhelm Margrave of Baden-Baden an Imperial Field Marschal.
Oct 4 Richard Cromwell the second ruling Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, serving for just under nine months, from 3 September 1658 until 25 May 1659. After his fall from power, he was given the unflattering nicknames of Tumbledown Dick and Queen Dick by Royalists
Oct 6 Géraud de Cordemoy a French philosopher, historian and lawyer. He is mainly known for his works in metaphysics and for his theory of language
Nov 8 César-Pierre Richelet a French grammarian and lexicographer, and the editor of the first dictionary of the French language.
Dec 10 George Christian Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg the third Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg.
Dec 18 Christina Queen of Sweden Queen regnant of Sweden from 1633 to 1654, using the titles of Queen of Swedes, Goths, and Vandals, Grand Princess of Finland, and Duchess of Ingria, Estonia, Livonia and Karelia. She was the only surviving legitimate child of King Gustav II Adolph and his wife Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg. As the heiress presumptive, at the age of six she succeeded her father on the throne of Sweden upon his death at the Battle of Lützen. Being the daughter of a Protestant champion in the Thirty Years' War, she caused a scandal when she abdicated her throne and converted to Roman Catholicism in 1654. She spent her later years in Rome, becoming a leader of the theatrical and musical life there. As a queen without a country, she protected many artists and projects. She is one of the few women buried in the Vatican grotto
Dec 20 Veit Ludwig von Seckendorff a member of a German noble family, which took its name from the village of Seckendorf between Nuremberg and Langenzenn.